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Federal policy requires that PIs search for and consider alternatives to replace, reduce, or refine the number of animals used in research.

The following search engines may be used to determine whether any alternatives for less painful/invasive procedures exist. You must use at least two searches and the search terms should include the name of the painful procedure  together with words such as "pain," "distress" and "alternatives."  

These sites are used to verify you are not duplicating previously published research results and you must include results from two in your protocol:

This article written by Dr. W. LaMorte, "Sample Size Calculations in Research" (doc), and the accompanying LaMorte Calculator (excel spreadsheet) are intended to help PIs estimate the appropriate number of animals needed for research to reduce waste from either estimating too few or too many animals for any particular project.