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Sheldon Zhang

Sheldon Zhang
Sheldon Zhang, Ph.D.Chair and Professor
  • College
    College of Fine Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences
  • Department
    School of Criminology and Justice Studies
  • Phone
    (978) 934-4160
  • Fax
    (978) 934-3077
  • Office
    Health and Social Sciences Building - 400
  • Email

Research Interests

Criminal networks, transnational illicit enterprises, human trafficking, evaluation of community corrections and re-entry programs.


  • Ph D: Sociology, (1993), University of Southern California - Los Angeles, CA
  • MS: Criminology, (1991), University of Southern California - Los Angeles, CA
  • MA: Print Journalism, (1988), University of Southern California - Los Angeles, CA
  • BA: English Literature, (1983), Sichuan University - Chengdu, China


Sheldon Zhang has more than two decades of experience as a field researcher in criminology and justice studies. He is internationally known for his work on transnational organized crime such as human smuggling and drug trafficking involving Chinese nationals, and in recent years on human trafficking activities. He has led and co-led several projects that examine the different aspects of human trafficking in U.S and abroad. He was twice invited to the White House for national anti-trafficking gatherings and strategic planning. He is currently serving as an expert consultant to several international organizations such as the International Labor Organization, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Freedom Fund, and Walk Free Foundation. He is also known for his long time collaborative efforts with correctional agencies in California to evaluate various offender reentry and recidivism reduction programs. Working with criminal justice. social service, and community-based agencies. Zhang has led numerous projects involving complex evaluative designs, randomized controlled trails, as well as ethnographic fieldwork that resulted in empirically grounded and policy relevant scholarship. Zhang has authored/co-authored 7 books and edited volumes in premier academic outlets, such as Stanford University Press and New York University Press. He has also published 52 scholarly journal articles, 30 book chapters/invited articles, and 21 technical reports. His work appeared in top journals in the field, including Criminology, British Journal of Criminology, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. His publications also appeared in general political and sociological journals such as the ANNALS of American Academy of Social and Political Science. Zhang has served as Principal Investigator in excess of $8 million worth of externally funded projects. Over his entire career. Zhang has served as Principal Investigator, Co-Principal Investigator, or major co-investigator in projects worth in excess of more than $15 million. Zhang received his Ph.D. in Sociology from the University of Southern California, and previously served as Sociology Department Chair at the San Diego State University.

Selected Publications

  • Zhang, S., Nyamathi, A.M., Wall, S., Hall, E.A., Salem, B.E., Farabee, D., Faucette, M., Yadav, K. (2016) "Drug Use and Multiple Sex Partners Among Homeless Ex-Offenders: Secondary Findings from an Experimental Study", Nursing Research 65:3 pp. 179 - 190
  • Zhang, S., Nyamathi, A., Reback, C.J., Salem, B.E., Shoptaw, S., Branson, C.M., Leake, B. (2015) "Correlates of Self-Reported Incarceration Among Homeless Gay and Bisexual Stimulant-Using Young Adults.", Western Journal of Nursing Research 37:6 pp. 799-811
  • Zhang, S., Li, C. (2015) "Counting Labour Trafficking Activities: An Empirical Attempt at Standardized Measurement", Forum on Crime & Society 8: pp. 37 - 61
  • Zhang, S., Pitts, W.J., Barrick, K., Lattimore, P.K. (2015) "Estimating Labor Trafficking Among Farmworkers: An Inverse Sampling Strategy Based on Reliable Housing Predictions", Journal of Human Trafficking 1:2 pp. 117 - 135
  • Zhang, S., Nyamathi, A., Salem, B.E., Farabee, D., Hall, B., Khalilifard, F., Leake, B. (2015) "Nursing Case Management, Peer Coaching, and Hepatitis A and B Vaccine Completion Among Homeless Men Recently Released on Parole", Nursing Research 64:3 pp. 177-189
  • Zhang, S., Chin, K. (2015) "Swim Against the Tide: Using Qualitative Data to Build a Theory on Chinese Human Smuggling", Transaction Books 20: pp. 215-233
  • Zhang, S., Ko-lin, C. (2015) "The Chinese Heroin Trade : Cross-Border Drug Trafficking in Southeast Asia and Beyond.", NYU Press
  • Zhang, S. (2015) "The Ethical Minefield in Human Trafficking Research—Real and Imagined", Springer pp. 85-96
  • Zhang, S., Salem, B.E., Nyamathi, A., Reback, C., Shoptaw, S., Nudelman, O. (2015) "Unmet Physical and Mental Healthcare Needs Among Stimulant-Using Gay and Bisexual Homeless Men", Issues in Mental Health Nursing 36:9 pp. 685-692
  • Zhang, S., Roberts, R.E., Farabee, D. (2014) "An Analysis of Prisoner Reentry and Parole Risk Using Compas and Traditional Criminal History Measures.", Crime & Delinquency 60:2 pp. 167 - 192
  • Zhang, S., Farabee, D., Wright, B. (2014) "An Experimental Evaluation of a Nationally Recognized Employment-Focused Offender Reentry Program.", Journal of Experimental Criminology 10:3 pp. 309 - 322
  • Zhang, S., Nyamathi, A.M., Salem, B.E., Farabee, D., Hall, E., Marfisee, M., Khalilifard, F., Musto, S., Faucette, M., Leake, B. (2014) "Correlates of Heroin and Methamphetamine Use Among Homeless Male Ex-Jail and Prison Offenders", Addiction Research & Theory 22:6 pp. 463-473
  • Zhang, S., Spiller, M.W., Finch, B.K., Qin, Y. (2014) "Estimating Labor Trafficking Among Unauthorized Migrant Workers in San Diego.", Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 653:1 pp. 65 - 86
  • Nyamathi, A., Salem, B., Farabee, D., Hall, E., Zhang, S., Khalilifard, F., Faucette, M., Leake, B. (2014) "Predictors of High Level of Hostility Among Homeless Men on Parole", Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 53:2 pp. 95-115
  • Wright, B.J., Zhang, S., Farabee, D., Braatz, R. (2014) "Prisoner Reentry Research From 2000 to 2010: Results of a Narrative Review", Criminal Justice Review (Sage Publications) 39:1 pp. 37-57
  • Barrick, K., Lattimore, P.K., Pitts, W.J., Zhang, S. (2014) "When Farmworkers and Advocates See Trafficking but Law Enforcement Does Not: Challenges in Identifying Labor Trafficking in North Carolina", Crime, Law and Social Change 61:2 pp. 205 - 214
  • Zhang, S. (2013) " A Bird’s Eye View on Chinese Organized Crime in North America.", Springer pp. 277-282
  • Zhang, S., Salem, B.E., Nyamathi, A., Keenan, C., Marlow, E., Khalilifard, F., Yadav, K., Faucette, M., Leake, B., Marfisee, M. (2013) "Correlates of Risky Alcohol and Methamphetamine Use Among Currently Homeless Male Parolees", Journal of Addictive Diseases 32:4 pp. 365-376
  • Zhang, S. (2013) "Snakeheads and the Cartwheel network—Functional Fluidity as Opposed to Structural Flexibility", Rutledge pp. 116-139
  • Zhang, S., Soudijn, M.R. (2013) "Taking Loan Sharking into Account: A Case Study of Chinese Vest-Pocket Lenders in Holland", Trends in Organized Crime 16:1 pp. 13 - 30
  • Zhang, S., Roberts, R.E., Lansing, A.E. (2013) "Treatment or Else: Coerced Treatment for Drug-Involved California Parolees.", International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 57:7 pp. 766 - 791
  • Zhang, S., Nyamathi, A., Salem, B.E., Marlow, E., Yadav, K. (2013) "Understanding Correlates of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among Homeless Recently Paroled Men", Journal of Forensic Nursing 9:3 pp. 162-170
  • Zhang, S., Wright, B.J., Farabee, D. (2012) "A Squandered Opportunity?: A Review of Samhsa’s National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices for Offenders.", Crime & Delinquency 58:6 pp. 954 - 972
  • Zhang, S. (2012) "Chinatown Tongs in America—Continuity and Opportunities", Springer pp. 109-128
  • Zhang, S., Nyamathi, A., Marlow, E., Hall, E., Farabee, D., Marfisee, M., Khalilifard, F., Faucette, M., Leake, B. (2012) "Correlates of Serious Violent Crime for Recently Released Parolees with a History of Homelessness", Violence and Victims 27:5 pp. 793 - 810
  • Zhang, S., Farabee, D., Wright, B. (2012) "Managing an On-The-Spot Lottery in Reentry Services.", Journal of Experimental Criminology 8:3 pp. 241 - 253
  • Zhang, S. (2012) "Measuring Labor Trafficking: A Research Note", Crime, Law & Social Change 58:4 pp. 469-482
  • Zhang, S., Pacheco-McEvoy, R., Campos, R. (2012) Sex Trafficking in Latin America: Dominant Discourse, Empirical Paucity, and Promising Research 13:1 pp. 22-41
  • Zhang, S., Farabee, D., Yang, J. (2011) "A Preliminary Examination of Offender Needs Assessment: Are All Those Questions Really Necessary?", Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 43:S1 pp. 51-57
  • Zhang, S., Chin, K. (2011) Ants Moving Houses-Cross-Border Drug Trafficking in the Golden Triangle pp. 237-247
  • Zhang, S., Nyamathi, A., Leake, B., Albarran, C., Hall, E., Farabee, D., Marlow, E., Marfisee, M., Khalilifard, F., Faucette, M. (2011) "Correlates of Depressive Symptoms Among Homeless Men on Parole", Issues In Mental Health Nursing 32:8 pp. 501-511
  • Zhang, S. (2011) Introduction to Special Topic in International Criminology pp. 109-111
  • Zhang, S., Smith, C. (2011) "Progress of International Criminology", Routledge pp. 1-8
  • Zhang, S. (2011) "Sex Trafficking in a Border City: Stories from Tijuana, Mexico.", Institute for Security Studies pp. 88-96
  • Zhang, S., Roberts, R.E., McCollister, K.E. (2011) "Therapeutic Community in a California Prison: Treatment Outcomes After 5 Years.", Crime & Delinquency 57:1 pp. 82 - 101
  • Zhang, S. (2011) "Woman Pullers: Pimping and Sex Trafficking in a Mexican Border City", Crime, Law & Social Change 56:5 pp. 509-528
  • Zhang, S. (2010) "Talking to Snakeheads: Methodological Considerations for Research on Chinese Human Smuggling.", Willan Publishing pp. 184 - 204
  • Zhang, S., Roberts, R.E., McCollister, K.E. (2009) "An Economic Analysis of the In-Prison Therapeutic Community Model on Prison Management Costs.", Journal of Criminal Justice 37:4 pp. 388 - 395
  • Zhang, S. (2009) Beyond the Natasha Story: A Review and Critique of Current Research on Sex Trafficking 10:3 pp. 178-195
  • Zhang, S. (2008) "Chinese Human Smuggling Organizations : Families, Social Networks, and Cultural Imperatives", Stanford University Press
  • Zhang, S., Pineda, S. (2008) "Corruption as a Causal Factor in Human Trafficking", Springer pp. 41-56
  • Zhang, S., Winslow, R.W. (2008) "Criminology : A Global Perspective", Pearson/Prentice Hall
  • Zhang, S. (2007) "Smuggling and Trafficking in Human Beings : All Roads Lead to America", Praeger/Greenwood
  • Zhang, S., Roberts, R.E., Callanan, V.J. (2006) "Preventing Parolees From Returning to Prison Through Community-Based Reintegration.", Crime & Delinquency 52:4 pp. 551 - 571
  • Zhang, S., Roberts, R.E., Callanan, V.J. (2006) "The Cost Benefits of Providing Community-Based Correctional Services: An Evaluation of a Statewide Parole Program in California.", Journal of Criminal Justice 34:4 pp. 341 - 350
  • Zhang, S., Zhang, L. (2005) "Experimental Study of the Los Angeles County Repeat Offender Prevention Program: Its Implementation and Evaluation.", Criminology & Public Policy 4:2 pp. 205 - 236
  • Zhang, S., Zhang, L. (2004) "Reintegrative Shaming and Delinquency", Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 41:4 pp. 433-453
  • Zhang, S., Chin, K. (2003) "The Declining Significance of Triad Societies in Transnational Illegal Activities—A Structural Deficiency Perspective", British Journal of Criminology 43:3 pp. 469-488
  • Zhang, S., Chin, K. (2002) "Enter the Dragon—Inside Chinese Human Smuggling Organizations", Criminology 40:4
  • Zhang, S. (2002) Family, Culture, and Control of the Delinquent Chinese Boy in America pp. 239-259
  • Zhang, S., chin, K. (2002) Snakeheads: Chinese human Trafficking Organizations pp. 383-385
  • Zhang, S. (2001) "Chinese Gangs—Familial and Cultural Dynamics", Sage pp. 219-236
  • Zhang, S., Chin, K. (2001) "Chinese Human Smuggling in the United States of America", Forum on Crime and Society 1:2 pp. 31-52
  • Zhang, S., Benson, T., Deng, X. (2000) "A Test and Re-Test of the International Self-Report Delinquency instrument", Journal of Criminal Justice 28: pp. 283-295
  • Zhang, S. (1999) Electronic Monitoring in Los Angeles County—A Case of Public-Private Partnership in Community Corrections. pp. 108-121
  • Zhang, S., (1998) "In Search of Hopeful Glimpses--A Critique of Research Strategies in Current Boot Camp Evaluations.", Crime and Delinquency 44:2 pp. 314-334
  • Zhang, S., Chin, K. (1998) "Transnational Chinese Organized Crime Activities", Transnational Organized Crime 4:3 & 4 pp. 127-154
  • Zhang, S., Benson, T. (1997) "Cost-Effectiveness, Accountability, and Officer Morale—An Evaluation of a Personalized Patrol Vehicle Program", Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management 30:4 pp. 749-765
  • Zhang, S., (1997) "Task Force Orientation and Dyadic Relations in Organized Chinese Alien Smuggling", Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 13:4 pp. 320-330
  • Zhang, S., Gaylord, M. (1996) "In Search of the Gold Mountain— Organizational and Operational Patterns of Chinese Alien Smuggling", Crime, Law and Social Change 25:1 pp. 1-16
  • Zhang, S. (1996) "The Efficiency of Working under One Roof—An Evaluation of Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Centers", Crime and Delinquency 42:2 pp. 257-268
  • Zhang, S. (1995) "Measuring Shaming in an Ethnic Context.", British Journal of Criminology 35:2 pp. 248 - 262
  • Zhang, S. (1995) "Street Crime and Informal Social Control in an Anomic China", Chinese Journal of Political Sciences 1:1 pp. 73-100
  • Zhang, S., Polakow, R., Nidorf, B. (1994) Varied Uses of Electronic Monitoring: The Los Angeles Experience pp. 3-20
  • Zhang, S., Junger-Tas, J., Klein, M., (1992) "Problems and Dilemmas in Comparative Self-Report Delinquency Research", British Society of Criminology pp. 83-103