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Majid Charmchi

Majid Charmchi
Dr. Majid CharmchiProfessor Emeritus
  • CollegeFrancis College of Engineering
  • DepartmentMechanical Engineering
  • Phone(978) 934-2969
  • Fax(978) 934-3048
  • OfficeBall Hall - 224
  • Emailmajid_charmchi@uml.edu

Research Interests

Heat and Mass Transfer, Computational Fluid Dynamics

The general area of heat and mass transfer, computational fluid dynamics, thermal analysis of electronic devices and systems and transport phenomena in material processing

Education

  • Ph D: Mechanical Engineering, Thermo Fluid Science, (1981), University of Minnesota -
    Dissertation/Thesis Title: Experimental and Analytical Study of Natural Convection in the Enclosed Space between Finite Length Cylinders, (Supervisor: E. M. Sparrow)
  • MS: Mechanical Engineering, Fluid Mechanics, (1979), University of Minnesota -
    Dissertation/Thesis Title: Pressure Drop Characteristics of Partially Blocked Pipe Flows and Expansion Chambers, (Supervisor: E. M. Sparrow)
  • BS: Mechanical Engineering, (1974), Arya-Mehr (Sharif) University of Technology - Tehran, Iran
    Dissertation/Thesis Title: Computation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Water Vapor and Steam Power Cycle Optimization

Awards and Honors

  • Invited Member (2009), Service, Community - Scientific Committee for the "First International Conference on Computational Methods for Energy Engineering and Environment," Sousse, Tunisia
  • Invited Member (2009) - Scientific Committee for the ?First International Conference on Computational Methods for Energy Engineering and Environment,"
  • Invited Speaker/Panelist (2007), Scholarship/Research - "National Science Foundation Workshop for Frontiers in Transport Phenomena Research & Education: Energy Systems, Biological Systems, Security, Information Technology & Nanotechnology"
  • Invited Speaker/Panelist (2007) - Prestigious ?National Science Foundation Workshop for Frontiers in Transport Phenomena Research & Education: Energy Systems, Biological Systems, Security, Information Technology & Nanotechnology"
  • Outstanding Teaching and Advisor Award (2004), Teaching - Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Massachusetts Lowell
  • Recipient of Outstanding Teaching and Advisor Award (2004), Teaching - Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Massachusetts Lowell
  • Centennial Speaker (2000) - Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rhode Island
  • Centennial Speaker (2000), Service, University - Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rhode Island
  • Distinguished Alumni Speaker (1999), Service, University - Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Minnesota
  • Distinguished Alumni Speaker (1999) - Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Minnesota
  • Distinguished Alumni Speaker (1999), Service, University - Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Minnesota
  • Outstanding Contribution in Research and Service (1989) - University of Massachusetts Lowell
  • Outstanding Contribution in Research and Service (1989), Scholarship/Research - University of Massachusetts Lowell
  • Outstanding Contribution in Teaching and Service (1988) - Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Massachusetts Lowell
  • Outstanding Contribution in Teaching and Service (1988), Teaching - Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Massachusetts Lowell
  • Outstanding Achievement in Teaching and Service (1987) - Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Massachusetts Lowell
  • Outstanding Achievement in Teaching and Service (1987), Teaching - Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Massachusetts Lowell
  • Outstanding Achievement in Teaching and Research (1986), Teaching - College of Engineering, University of Massachusetts Lowell
  • Outstanding Achievement in Teaching and Research (1986) - College of Engineering, University of Massachusetts Lowell
  • Invited Panelist, Research Needs in Electronic Cooling (1986) - National Science Foundation (NSF) and Purdue University
  • Invited Panelist, Research Needs in Electronic Cooling (1986), Scholarship/Research - National Science Foundation (NSF) and Purdue University

Publications

  • Mirzaee, I., Charmchi, M., Sun, H. (2016) "Heat, mass, and crystal growth of GaN in the ammonothermal process: A numerical study," Numerical Heat Transfer; Part A: Applications 70:5 pp. 460 - 491
  • Poursaeidi, E., Ghaemi, H., Charmchi, M. (2014) "Effects of temperature gradient on compressor casing in an industrial gas turbine," Case Studies in Thermal Engineering 3: pp. 35 - 42
  • Su, J., Liu, X., Mirzaee, I., Gao, F., Charmchi, M., Gu, Z., Sun, H. (2014) "Magnetically assembling nanoscale metal network into phase change material," American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) 6B: pp. ASME
  • Su, J., Mirzaee, I., Gao, F., Liu, X., Charmchi, M., Gu, Z., Sun, H. (2014) "Magnetically Assembling Nanoscale Metal Network into Phase Change Material - Percolation Threshold Reduction in Paraffin Using Magnetically Assembly of Nanowires," Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine 5:3
  • Charmchi, M. (2013) "“Computational Investigation of Gallium Nitrite Ammonothermal Crystal Growth,”,"
  • Charmchi, M., Mirzaee, I., Sun, H., Song, M. (2013) "“Direct Numerical Simulation of Air Sampling in Micro Scale Rising Bubbles”,"
  • Kakhki, I., Charmchi, M., Sun, H., Song, M. (2013) "Numerical simulation of air sampling in micro scale rising bubbles," ASME 2013 Heat Transfer Summer Conf. Collocated with the ASME 2013 7th Int. Conf. on Energy Sustainability and the ASME 2013 11th Int. Conf. on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology, HT 2013 3:
  • Wang, P., Charmchi, M., Shen, M., Sun, H. (2012) "Hydrophobicity of Nanostructured Films Characterized by a Quartz Crystal Microbalance," pp. 359–366
  • Vaezi, M., Passandideh-Fard, M., Moghiman, M., Charmchi, M. (2012) "On a methodology for selecting biomass materials for gasification purposes," Fuel Processing Technology 98: pp. 74-81
  • Vaezi, M., Passandideh-Fard, M., Moghiman, M., Charmchi, M. (2011) "Gasification of heavy fuel oils: A thermochemical equilibrium approach," Fuel 90:2 pp. 878-885
  • Sun, H., Gowda, R., Wang, P., Charmchi, M., Gao, F., Gu, Z., Budhlall, B. (2010) "Effects of particle surface charge, species, concentration, and dispersion method on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids," Advances in Mechanical Engineering 2010:
  • Gowda, R., Sun, H., Wang, P., Charmchi, M., Gao, F., Gu, Z., Budhlall, B. (2010) "Effects of particle surface charge, species, concentration, and dispersion method on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids," Advances in Mechanical Engineering 2010:
  • Song, M., Sun, H., Charmchi, M., Wang, P., Zhang, Z., Faghri, M. (2010) "Modeling of micro/nano particle separation in microchannels with field-flow fractionation," Microsystem Technologies 16:6 pp. 947-954
  • Song, M., Sun, H., Zhang, Z., Faghri, M., Charmchi, M., Wang, P. (2010) "“Modeling of Micro/Nano Particle Separation in Microchannels with Field-flow Fractionation”," Microsystem Technologies 16:6 pp. 947-954
  • Veilleux, D.L., Faghri, M., Asako, Y., Charmchi, M. (2007) "Convection enhancement in melting by electromagnetic fields in a low-gravity environment: Side wall heating," Numerical Heat Transfer; Part A: Applications 51:2 pp. 129-158
  • Zhang, H., Charmchi, M., Veilleux, D., Faghri, M. (2007) "Numerical and experimental investigation of melting in the presence of a magnetic field: Simulation of low-gravity environment," Journal of Heat Transfer 129:4 pp. 568-576
  • Gon?alves, E., Faghri, M., Asako, Y., Charmchi, M. (2005) "Numerical solution of melting in side-heated rectangular enclosure under electromagnetically simulated low gravity," Numerical Heat Transfer; Part A: Applications 47:4 pp. 315-332
  • Veilleux, D., Goncalves, E., Faghri, M., Asako, Y., Charmchi, M. (2005) "Phase change in a three-dimensional rectangular cavity under electromagnetically simulated low gravity: Top wall heating with an unfixed material," Numerical Heat Transfer; Part A: Applications 48:9 pp. 849-878
  • Veilleux, D.L., Goncalves, E., Faghri, M., Asako, Y., Charmchi, M. (2005) "Phase change in a three-dimensional rectangular cavity under electromagnetically simulated low-gravity: Side wall heating," International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat and Fluid Flow 15:7 pp. 710-739
  • Charmchi, M., Zhang, H., Sun, H., Veilleux, D., Faghri, M. (2005) "“Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Melting in the Presence of a Magnetic Field -Simulation of Low gravity Environment”,"
  • Zhang, H., Sun, H., Charmchi, M. (2005) "“Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Melting in the Presence of a Magnetic Field”," ASME IMECE conference
  • Charmchi, M. (2005) "“Wind Tunnel Tests on a Tented and Untented Scale Model Manufactured Home in Simulated Hurricane Force Winds”," Research Foundation of University of Massachusetts Lowell
  • Charmchi, M., Faghri, M. (2004) ""Melting and Solidification in a Rectangular Cavity under Electromagnetically Simulated Low Gravity","
  • Charmchi, M., Veilleux, D., Asako, Y., Goncalves, E., Faghri, M. (2004) ""Phase Change in a Three-Dimensional Rectangular Cavity Under Electromagnetically Simulated Low Gravity: Side Wall Heating”,"
  • Charmchi, M., Zhang, H., Li, W., Faghri, M. (2004) ""Solidification and Melting of Gallium in the Presence of Magnetic Field - Experimental Simulation of Low Gravity Environment","
  • Goncalves, E., Faghri, M., Asako, Y., Charmchi, M. (2004) "Numerical solution of melting processes for unfixed phase-change material in the presence of electromagnetically simulated low gravity," Numerical Heat Transfer; Part A: Applications 46:4 pp. 343-365
  • Ghafouri-Azar, R., Mostaghimi, J., Chandra, S., Charmchi, M. (2003) "A stochastic model to simulate the formation of a thermal spray coating," Journal of Thermal Spray Technology 12:1 pp. 53-69
  • Charmchi, M., Azar, R.G., Mostaghimi, J., Chandra, S. (2003) "“Microstructure of Thermal Spray Coating: Simulations and Experiment”,"
  • Charmchi, M., Goncalves, E., Faghri, M., Asako, Y. (2003) "“Numerical Solution of Melting in Side-Heated Rectangular Enclosure under Electromagnetically Simulated Low Gravity”,"
  • Charmchi, M., Li, W., Zhang, H., Faghri, M. (2002) ""Flow Visualization of Natural Convection in a Phase Change Process --Melting of Ice in a Confined Rectangular Test Cavity”,"
  • Asako, Y., Goncalves, E., Faghri, M., Charmchi, M. (2002) "Numerical solution of melting processes for fixed and unfixed phase change material in the presence of magnetic field-simulation of low-gravity environment," Numerical Heat Transfer; Part A: Applications 42:6 pp. 565-583
  • Charmchi, M., Faghri, M. (2002) "“Melting Processes for Unfixed Phase Change Material in the Presence of Electromagnetic Field”,"
  • Charmchi, M., Goncalves, E., Faghri, M., Asako, Y. (2002) "“Numerical Solution of Melting Processes for Unfixed Phase Change Material in the Presence of Electromagnetic Field –Simulation of Low Gravity Environment","
  • Charmchi, M., Asako, Y., Goncalves, E., Faghri, M. (2001) ""Numerical Solution of Melting Processes for Fixed and Unfixed Phase Change Material in the Presence of Magnetic Field – Simulation of Low Gravity Environment”,"
  • Gibson, P.W., Charmchi, M. (2000) "Application of computational fluid dynamics to protective clothing system evaluation," American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Heat Transfer Division, (Publication) HTD 366: pp. 147-157
  • Charmchi, M. (2000) "“Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics to Protective Clothing System Evaluation”,"
  • Charmchi, M. (1998) ""Monte Carlo Simulation of Thermal Spray Coatings"," Thermal Spray Laboratory, Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Eng.
  • Charmchi, M., Gibson, P.W., Elsaiid, A.E., Rivin, D. (1997) ""Humidity- Dependent Air Permeability of Textile Materials","
  • Gibson, P.W., Elsaiid, A.E., Kendrick, C.E., Rivin, D., Charmchi, M. (1997) "A Test Method to Determine the Relative Humidity Dependence of the Air Permeability of Woven Textile Fabrics," Journal of Testing and Evaluation 25:4 pp. 416-421
  • Gibson, P.W., Kendrick, C.E., Rivin, D., Charmchi, M. (1997) "An automated dynamic water vapor permeation test method," ASTM Special Technical Publication 1273: pp. 93-107
  • Gibson, P.W., Charmchi, M. (1997) "Coupled heat and mass transfer through hygroscopic porous materials - Application to clothing layers," Sen'i Gakkaishi 53:5 pp. 183-194
  • Gibson, P.W., Charmchi, M. (1997) "Modeling convection/diffusion processes in porous textiles with inclusion of humidity-dependent air permeability," International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 24:5 pp. 709-724
  • Gibson, P.W., Charmchi, M. (1997) "Modeling convection/diffusion processes in porous textiles with inclusion of humidity-dependent air permeability," International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 24:5 pp. 709-724
  • Gibson, P.W., Elsaiid, A.E., Kendrick, C.E., Rivin, D., Charmchi, M. (1997) "Test method to determine the relative humidity dependence of the air permeability of woven textile fabrics," Journal of Testing and Evaluation 25:4 pp. 416-423
  • Gibson, P., Charmchi, M. (1997) "The use of volume-averaging techniques to predict temperature transients due to water vapor sorption in hygroscopic porous polymer materials," Journal of Applied Polymer Science 64:3 pp. 493-505
  • Gibson, P., Charmchi, M. (1997) "Use of volume-averaging techniques to predict temperature transients due to water vapor sorption in hygroscopic porous polymer materials," Journal of Applied Polymer Science 64:3 pp. 493-505
  • Charmchi, M., Gibson, P.W., Kendrick, C., Rivin, D. (1996) ""An Automated Dynamic Water Vapor Permeation Test Method"," American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
  • Charmchi, M., Gibson, P.W., Kendrick, C., Rivin, D. (1996) "“Application of Models for Coupled Heat and Mass Transfer Through Porous Media to Protective Clothing Systems for Individual Soldier","
  • Charmchi, M., Choquette, S.F., Faghri, M., Asako, Y. (1996) "“Optimum Design of Microchannel Heat Sinks","
  • Charmchi, M. (1996) "“An Automated Dynamic Water vapor Permeation Test Method","
  • Charmchi, M., Gibson, P.W. (1996) "“Water Vapor Diffusion in Coated Fabrics","
  • Gibson, P., Kendrick, C., Rivin, D., Sicuranza, L., Charmchi, M. (1995) "Automated water vapor diffusion test method for fabrics, laminates, and films," Journal of Coated Fabrics 24: pp. 322-322
  • Charmchi, M., Gibson, P.W. (1995) "“A Numerical Model for Coupled Heat and Mass Transfer Through Hygroscopic Porous Textiles and Integration with a Human Thermal Physiology Control Model"," The Fiber Society Technical Conference, Philadelphia, PA
  • Charmchi, M. (1995) ""An Automated Dynamic Water Vapor Permeation Test Method"," U.S. Army Natick Research, Development, and Engineering Center
  • Asako, Y., Faghri, M., Charmchi, M., Bahrami, P.A. (1994) "Numerical solution for melting of unfixed rectangular phase-change material under low-gravity environment," Numerical Heat Transfer; Part A: Applications 25:2 pp. 191-208
  • Charmchi, M. (1994) ""Modeling of MultiPhase Heat and Mass Transfer in Hygroscopic Porous Media with Applications to Clothing Materials"," Army Natick Research, Development, and Engineering Center
  • Charmchi, M. (1994) ""Pressure Drop in Straight and Curved Tubes With and Without Implants -Blood Flow Simulation"," Bard Ventures Division
  • Charmchi, M. (1993) ""Analysis of Gas-Cooled Particle Bed Reactor: the Theory and Numerical Techniques Applied in SIMBED Codes"," Brookhaven National Laboratory
  • Charmchi, M. (1991) ""Numerical Solution of the Particle Bed Reactor Bounded Between Two Concentric Cones, Using a Nonorthogonal Coordinate Transportation and Control-Volume Based Finite Difference Scheme"," Brookhaven National Laboratory
  • Charmchi, M. (1990) ""Numerical Formulation for Melting of an Unfixed Rectangular Phase- Change Material"," Prepared for NASA Ames Research Center
  • Charmchi, M., Walsh, S.M. (1989) "“Adaptive Grid Generation in Computation of Consolidating Laminate Composites"," ASME 90: pp. 81 - 88
  • Charmchi, M. (1989) "“Forced Convection Heat Transfer"," McGraw-Hill Book Company
  • Charmchi, M. (1989) "“Natural Convection Heat Transfer"," McGraw-Hill Book Company
  • Charmchi, M., McKelliget, J.W. (1989) "Thermo-Hydraulic Characteristics of Gas-Cooled Particle Bed Reactors"," 1: pp. 135-141
  • Charmchi, M. (1988) ""Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Characterization of the Hydrogen-Cooled Small Particle Bed Reactor"," Brookhaven National Laboratory
  • Charmchi, M., Walsh, S.M. (1988) "“Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Pultrusion Process"," 3: pp. 23-28
  • Charmchi, M. (1988) "“Thermal Characteristics of Dot-matrix Print Heads"," pp. 132-136
  • Shu, Y.H., Charmchi, M., Chen, S.J. (1987) "THEORETICAL STUDY OF NON-ISOTHERMAL MULTI-LAYER STRATIFIED FLOWS BETWEEN PARALLEL PLATES," Journal of polymer engineering 7:4 pp. 255-274
  • Charmchi, M., Aslam, S. (1986) "“Computing Water Properties Using Microcomputers"," 1:
  • Charmchi, M., Yang, L., Douglas, C., Chen, S.J. (1986) "“Runner Design Through Flow Balancing by Proper Dimensioning of Runner System","
  • Charmchi, M. (1986) ""Analysis of Cooling Systems of GM, Engine-Generator Models MP36 and MP45"," Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN) Inc.
  • Charmchi, M. (1984) ""Froude Modeling of the Interaction of the Spray Droplets With the Fire Plumes"," Factory Mutual Research Corp.
  • Charmchi, M. (1984) ""GRID, a computer program for the prediction of the water delay time in dry-pipe sprinkler systems"," Factory Mutual Research Corp.
  • Charmchi, M. (1984) ""SCHD, a computer program for the prediction of the water delay time in pipe schedule dry-pipe sprinkler systems"," Mutual Research Corp.
  • Sparrow, E.M., Charmchi, M. (1983) "NATURAL CONVECTION EXPERIMENTS IN AN ENCLOSURE BETWEEN ECCENTRIC OR CONCENTRIC VERTICAL CYLINDERS OF DIFFERENT HEIGHT AND DIAMETER," International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 26:1 pp. 133-143
  • Charmchi, M. (1983) ""Analytical Modeling of Water Delay Time in Gridded Dry-Pipe Sprinkler System"," Factory Mutual Research Corp.
  • Charmchi, M. (1983) ""Design of a 1/4-Scale Test Facility to Model Hydrogen Burning in Mark III Nuclear Containments"," Electric Power Research Institute "EPRI"
  • Charmchi, M., Sparrow, E.M. (1982) "ANALYSIS OF NATURAL CONVECTION IN THE SPACE BETWEEN CONCENTRIC VERTICAL CYLINDERS OF DIFFERENT HEIGHT AND DIAMETER," Numerical heat transfer 5:2 pp. 119-144
  • Charmchi, M. (1982) ""1/4-Scale Hydrogen Mixing/Combustion Test"," Electric Power Research Institute "EPRI"
  • Sparrow, E.M., Charmchi, M. (1980) "HEAT TRANSFER AND FLUID FLOW CHARACTERISTICS OF SPANWISE-PERIODIC CORRUGATED DUCTS," International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 23:4 pp. 471-481
  • Sparrow, E.M., Koram, K.K., Charmchi, M. (1980) "HEAT TRANSFER AND PRESSURE DROP CHARACTERISTICS INDUCED BY A SLAT BLOCKAGE IN A CIRCULAR TUBE," Journal of Heat Transfer 102:1 pp. 64-70
  • Sparrow, E.M., Charmchi, M. (1980) "LAMINAR HEAT TRANSFER IN AN EXTERNALLY FINNED CIRCULAR TUBE," Journal of Heat Transfer 102:4 pp. 605-611

Presentations

  • - –National Science Foundation Workshop for Frontiers in Transport Phenomena Research & Education: Energy Systems, Biological Systems, Security, Information Technology & Nanotechnology", May 2007 - University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT
  • –Gasification of Sulfur-Containing Carbonaceous Fuels" - Sustainable Development Technology Canada (SDTC) Clean Energy Conference, October 2005 - Ottawa, Ontario
  • –Phase Change in the Presence of Electromagnetic Fields", December 2002 - Toronto, ON
  • "Heat and Mass Transfer Through Hygroscopic Porous Media", October 2000 - Kingston, RI
  • "Droplet Impact on Solid and Porous Surfaces --Free Surface Flow Simulation", February 2000 - Natick, MA
  • "Heat and Mass Transfer Through Hygroscopic Porous Media; application to clothing systems", March 1999 - Minnesota
  • "Monte Carlo Simulation of Thermal Spray Coatings" - Thermal Spray Consortium Meeting, February 1999 - Toronto, ON
  • "Stochastic Model of Thermal Spray Coating" - Thermal Spray Consortium Meeting, June 1998 - Toronto, ON
  • "Transport Phenomena in Woven and non Woven Textile Materials", March 1998 - Toronto, ON
  • "Numerical Solution of Consolidating Laminate Composites by Boundary Immobilization" - 1994 ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Open Forum on Computer Analysis in Materials Processing and Manufacturing, November 1994 - Chicago, IL
  • "Novel Processing Methods for Thick Sectioned Composites" - 1993 ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Open Forum on Thermal-Fluids Issues in Manufacturing and Materials Processing, December 1993 - New Orleans
  • "Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Characteristics of Gas-Cooled Particle Bed Reactors", March 1991 - Boston, MA
  • –Heat Transfer in Particle Bed Reactors", February 1990 - Minneapolis, MN
  • "Transport Processes Through Porous Media", March 1989 - Houghton, MI
  • "Numerical Solution of Compressible Flow Through Particle Bed", February 1987 - Sherbrooke
  • - Workshop on "Advances in Air Cooling of Electronic Components", June 1986 - Boston, MA
  • "Analytical Modeling of Water Delay Time in Dry Sprinkler Network" - National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Annual Fall meeting, September 1984 - San Diego
  • "Use of Aspirated Thermocouples to Measure Gas Temperature in the Presence of Water Droplets" - Workshop on temperature and flow field measurements in fire plums, October 1983 - Factory Mutual Research Corporation
  • "Numerical Analysis of the Recirculating Flows", March 1983 - Medford, MA

Contracts, Fellowships, Grants and Sponsored Research

  • EAGER: Magnetically Assembling and Soldering of Nanoscale Metal Network into Phas (2013), Grant -
    Charmchi, M. (Co-Principal)
  • Flow Analysis of Environmental Chamber (2013), -
    Charmchi, M. (Principal)
  • Solvothermal Growth Low-Defect-Density Gallium Nitrite Substrates (2011), - U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE
    Charmchi, M. (Principal)
  • Wind Tunnel Testing of Airmar Prototype 300wx Weatherstation (2010), -
    Charmchi, M. (Co-Principal)
  • Wind Tunnel Testing of a Loud Hailer Speaker System (2010), - U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE
    Charmchi, M. (Co-Principal)
  • Wind Tunnel Testing of a Specific Projectile (2007), Grant -
    Charmchi, M. (Principal)