This course discusses the world and U.S. primary energy resources and consumption, including fossil, nuclear and renewable energy sources. Principles of thermodynamics are reviewed, especially in regard to energy usage efficiency improvement. A significant part of the course is devoted to electricity production, including site visits to fossil and nuclear power plants. The environmental effects are discussed of energy extraction and consumption, such as SOx, NOx and particulate matter emissions, acid deposition, the greenhouse effect, radioactive waste disposal. Also the risks of accidents are discussed in fossil and nuclear fuel usage.