Protein analysis and characterization is of critical importance to biopharmaceutical discovery research, development and manufacturing. Understanding the structure and function of therapeutic proteins and their related isoforms is essential for drug candidate screening, assessing manufacturability, process development/optimization, formulation development, quality assurance/quality control, regulatory, and other areas of biomanufacturing. My lab has collaborated with more than fifty biopharmaceutical and biotechnology companies – most of them based in Massachusetts as well as some national and international – over the past twelve years. My research focuses on critical issues that remain unaddressed by industry. These include studying relationships between protein folding and productivity, the mechanism of action (MoA) of protein therapeutics, the adverse effects associated with protein aggregation, and the role of posttranslational modifications in protein structure and function. In addition to working on traditional biopharmaceuticals, I have pioneered structural studies on emerging forms of protein therapeutics, such as bispecific antibodies, complex fusion proteins and antibody drug conjugates (ADCs).