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Long Chiang

Long Chiang  headshot
Long Y ChiangProfessor

Research Interests

Design and synthesis of near-infrared absorbing emerald green fullerenes for near-infrared sensing and imaging, near-infrared filter, and broadband photovoltaic devices:  Emerald green fullerenes (EF) are a new class of multifunctionalized C60 derivatives exhibiting long wavelength optical absorption and named according to their intrinsic green color of the material. Structurally, a double-triphenylene interconnected all-trans 18-trannulene moiety was proposed to be responsible for the green color. Electrochemical characteristics of EF-6MC2 in solution substantiated the high multielectron accepting capability of EF compounds that may allow their uses as the acceptors in optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications. Design and synthesis of multiphoton absorptive fullerene-fluorene chromophores for nonlinear photonic sensor protection and optical limiting applications:  A series of fullerenyl chromophore dyads and triads were synthesized by attachment of two hindered groups on C9 of fluorene ring increases highly on its solubility and makes direct intermolecular stacking contact of fullerene cages and diphenylaminofluorene rings more difficult. We propose the mechanism of keto-enol isomerization between strained cyclopropyl ring moiety and the carbonyl group for extending the p-conjugation length toward the C60 cage, resulting in enhancing electronic interactions, the molecular polarization, and thus multi-photon absorption cross-sections. Based on transient absorption data from femtosecond pump-probe experiments at 800 nm and nanosecond laser flash photolysis at 355 nm confirmed unambiguously the occurrence of two-photon excitation processes in benzene and a subsequent efficient energy transfer from the two-photon pumped donor moiety to the C60 cage moiety. Design and synthesis of hydrophilic molecular self-assembly of fullerene-derived nanospheres as biologically active free radiacal scavenging agents, PDT drugs and antibacterial agents:  Several water-soluble C60 derivatives were developed specifically as free-radical scavengers in biological system against reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced diseases.  High efficiency of FC4S as a biophotonic compound in photodynamic therapy (PDT) against tumor and cancer cells, as shown in our recent in vitro and in vivo studies established its platform in conjunction with the use of antibodies and peptides for targeting for potential therapeutic uses.  One limitation of current PDT treatments is its tissue penetration depth of light when the conventional laser irradiation at 630-700 nm is applied.  Combination of fullerenic PDT efficacy and two-photon absorptive moieties will allow us to design the corresponding hydrophilic C60-donor conjugate molecules for photonic utilities.  Optical absorption of C60-donor materials in the near-IR region may provide fundamental insights on the design of two-photon based PDT sensitizers in a better tissue penetration depth. Design and synthesis of starburst conductive conjugate-polymer molecular suprastructures using functionalized C60 as a molecular core for electronic nanodevices:  Conductive polymer conjugates with hexamethanofullerene malonate, pentamethano-fullerene malonates, and novel hexanitro[60]fullerene were synthesized. Utilization of hexanitro[60]fullerene as a precursor in the synthesis of hexaaminated C60 derivatives becomes a versatile method toward the preparation of starburst C60-derived conductive polymers.  The strategy involves anchoring various conductive polymer arms onto a C60 cage as a molecular core.  Using this synthetic approach, C60-derived, hyper-structured conductive oligoaniline molecules, such as hexa(hexadecaanilino)C60 and dodeca (hexadecaanilino) hexamethanofullerene hexa-malonate, were synthesized.  Molecular C60 and its derivatives are electronegative compounds.  Direct chemical bonding of electron-donating oligoanilines, with a well-defined chain length, on a fullerene cage forms macromolecules in a starburst A-Dn array.  Photoinduced intramolecular electron-transfer consecutively from hexadecaaniline arms of starburst molecules to the C60 core was found to be highly efficient, making these materials applicable in the design of molecular electronic nanodevices. 

Education

  • Other: Chemistry, (1980), Johns Hopkins University -
  • Ph D: Chemistry, (1979), Cornell University - Ithaca, NY
  • MS: Chemistry, (1977), Cornell University - Ithaca, NY
  • MS: Chemistry, (1975), SUNY and Cornell University - Ithaca, NY
  • BS: Chemistry, (1971), National Cheng Kung University -

Awards and Honors

  • Chair Research Fellowship (1994) - National Taiwan University, Taiwan

Publications

  • Jeon, S., Wang, M., Ji, W., Tan, L., Cooper, T., Chiang, L.Y. (2016) "Broadband Two-Photon Absorption Characteristics of Highly Photostable Fluorenyl-Dicyanoethylenylated [60]Fullerene Dyads.," Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) 21:5
  • Wang, M., Su, C., Yu, T., Tan, L., Hu, B., Urbas, A., Chiang, L.Y. (2016) "Novel photoswitchable dielectric properties on nanomaterials of electronic core-shell ?-FeOx@Au@fullerosomes for GHz frequency applications.," Nanoscale 8:12 pp. 6589 - 6599
  • Wang, M., Yu, T., Tan, L., Urbas, A., Chiang, L.Y. (2016) "Tunability of RF-Responses by Plasmonic Dielectric Amplification Using Branched e—Polarizable C60-Adducts on Magnetic Nanoparticles," The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 120:31 pp. 17711–17721
  • Yin, R., Wang, M., Huang, Y., Landi, G., Vecchio, D., Chiang, L.Y., Hamblin, M.R. (2015) "Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation with decacationic functionalized fullerenes: oxygen-independent photokilling in presence of azide and new mechanistic insights.," Free Radical Biology & Medicine 79: pp. 14 - 27
  • Hamblin, M.R., Chiang, L.Y., Lakshmanan, S., Huang, Y., Garcia-Diaz, M., Karimi, M., de Souza Rastelli, Alessandra Nara, ., Chandran, R. (2015) "Nanotechnology for photodynamic therapy: a perspective from the Laboratory of Dr. Michael R. Hamblin in the Wellman Center for Photomedicine at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School.," Nanotechnology Reviews 4:4 pp. 359
  • Yin, R., Wang, M., Huang, Y., Landi, G., Vecchio, D., Chiang, L.Y., Hamblin, M.R. (2015) "Original Contribution: Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation with decacationic functionalized fullerenes: Oxygen-independent photokilling in presence of azide and new mechanistic insights.," Free Radical Biology and Medicine 79: pp. 14 - 27
  • Nam-Goo, K., Ken, K., Seaho, J., Min, W., Chang-Lyoul, L., Canteenwala, T., Loon-Seng, T., Chiang, L.Y. (2015) "Synthesis and Photoluminescent Properties of Geometrically Hindered cis-Tris(diphenylaminofluorene) as Precursors to Light-Emitting Devices.," Molecules 20:3 pp. 4635
  • Wang, M., Jeon, S., Su, C., Yu, T., Tan, L., Chiang, L.Y. (2015) "Synthesis of Photoswitchable Magnetic Au–Fullerosome Hybrid Nanomaterials for Permittivity Enhancement Applications ," Molecules pp. 14746-14760
  • Huang, L., Wang, M., Dai, T., Sperandio, F.F., Huang, Y., Xuan, Y., Chiang, L.Y., Hamblin, M.R. (2014) "Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with decacationic monoadducts and bisadducts of [70]fullerene: in vitro and in vivo studies.," Nanomedicine 2 pp. 253
  • Yin, R., Wang, M., Huang, Y., Huang, H., Avci, P., Chiang, L.Y., Hamblin, M.R. (2014) "Photodynamic therapy with decacationic [60]fullerene monoadducts: effect of a light absorbing electron-donor antenna and micellar formulation.," Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, And Medicine 10:4 pp. 795 - 808
  • Huang, Y.b., Sharma, S., Yin, R.b., Agrawal, T.b., Chiang, L., Hamblin, M.b. (2014) "Functionalized fullerenes in photodynamic therapy," Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology 10:9 pp. 1918-1936
  • Yin, R.b., Wang, M., Huang, Y.b., Huang, H.b., Avci, P.b., Chiang, L., Hamblin, M.b. (2014) "Photodynamic therapy with decacationic [60]fullerene monoadducts: Effect of a light absorbing electron-donor antenna and micellar formulation," Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine 10:4 pp. 795-808
  • Huang, L.b., Wang, M., Dai, T.c., Sperandio, F.e., Huang, Y.c., Xuan, Y.g., Chiang, L., Hamblin, M.c. (2014) "Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with decacationic monoadducts and bisadducts of [70]fullerene: In vitro and in vivo studies," Nanomedicine 9:2 pp. 253-266
  • Wang, M., Canteenwala, T., Nalla, V., Tan, L., Ji, W., Chiang, L. (2013) "Synthesis of C60-antenna nanostructure-based fullerosome vesicles for ultrafast nonlinear photonic applications," ECS Transactions 45:20 pp. 3-14
  • Wang, M., Huang, L.c., Dai, T.d., Sperandio, F.e., Huang, Y.d., Hamblin, M.d., Chiang, L. (2013) "Synthesis of decacationic C70 bisadducts by incorporating covalently bound electron-donors for enhancement of radical-based type-I PDT," ECS Transactions 53:27 pp. 1-14
  • Zang, H., Yan, L., Li, M., He, L., Gai, Z., Ivanov, I., Wang, M., Chiang, L., Urbas, A., Hu, B. (2013) "Magneto-dielectric effects induced by optically-generated intermolecular charge-transfer states in organic semiconducting materials," Scientific Reports 3:
  • Gupta, A., Avci, P., Sadasivam, M., Chandran, R., Parizotto, N., Vecchio, D., de Melo, W.C., Dai, T., Chiang, L.Y., Hamblin, M.R. (2013) "Shining light on nanotechnology to help repair and regeneration," Biotechnology Advances
  • Jeon, S., Haley, J., Flikkema, J.c., Nalla, V., Wang, M., Sfeir, M., Tan, L., Cooper, T., Ji, W., Hamblin, M.g., Chiang, L. (2013) "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of photoresponsive [60]fullerene hybrid triads and tetrads with dual NIR two-photon absorption characteristics," Journal of Physical Chemistry C 117:33 pp. 17186-17195
  • Jeon, S., Wang, M., Tan, L., Cooper, T., Hamblin, M.d., Chiang, L. (2013) "Synthesis of photoresponsive dual NIR two-photon absorptive [60]fullerene triads and tetrads," Molecules 18:8 pp. 9603-9622
  • Huang, L.b., Wang, M., Sharma, S., Sperandio, F.F.a b d e, ., Maragani, S., Naykaa, S., Chang, J.f., Hamblin, M.b., Chiang, L.h. (2013) "Decacationic [70]fullerene approach for efficient photokilling of infectious bacteria and cancer cells," ECS Transactions 45:20 pp. 65-73
  • Sperandio, F.F.a b c d, ., Sharma, S., Wang, M., Jeon, S., Huang, Y.c., Dai, T.c., Nayka, S., de Sousa, S., Chiang, L.f., Hamblin, M.c. (2013) "Photoinduced electron-transfer mechanisms for radical-enhanced photodynamic therapy mediated by water-soluble decacationic C70 and C84O2 Fullerene Derivatives," Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine 9:4 pp. 570-579
  • Wang, M., Maragani, S., Huang, L., Jeon, S., Canteenwala, T., Hamblin, M.R., Chiang, L.Y. (2013) "Synthesis of decacationic [60]fullerene decaiodides giving photoinduced production of superoxide radicals and effective PDT-mediation on antimicrobial photoinactivation," European journal of medicinal chemistry 63: pp. 170-184
  • Yan, L., Wang, M., Raju, N.P., Epstein, A., Tan, L.S., Urbas, A., Chiang, L.Y., Hu, B. (2012) "Magnetocurrent of charge-polarizable C 60-diphenylaminofluorene monoadduct-derived magnetic nanocomposites," Journal of the American Chemical Society 134:7 pp. 3549-3554
  • Thota, S., Wang, M., Jeon, S., Maragani, S., Hamblin, M.R., Chiang, L.Y. (2012) "Synthesis and characterization of positively charged pentacationic [60]fullerene monoadducts for antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation," Molecules 17:5 pp. 5225-5243
  • Wang, M., Huang, L., Sharma, S.K., Jeon, S., Thota, S., Sperandio, F.F., Nayka, S., Chang, J., Hamblin, M.R., Chiang, L.Y. (2012) "Synthesis and photodynamic effect of new highly photostable decacationically armed [60]- and [70]fullerene decaiodide monoadducts to target pathogenic bacteria and cancer cells," Journal of medicinal chemistry 55:9 pp. 4274-4285
  • Wang, M., Nalla, V., Jeon, S., Mamidala, V., Ji, W., Tan, L.S., Cooper, T., Chiang, L.Y. (2011) "Large femtosecond two-photon absorption cross sections of fullerosome vesicle nanostructures derived from a highly photoresponsive amphiphilic C 60-light-harvesting fluorene dyad," Journal of Physical Chemistry C 115:38 pp. 18552-18559
  • Sharma, S.K., Chiang, L.Y., Hamblin, M.R. (2011) "Photodynamic therapy with fullerenes in vivo: Reality or a dream?," Nanomedicine 6:10 pp. 1813-1825
  • Jeon, S.H., Xu, P., Zhang, B., MacK, N.H., Tsai, H., Chiang, L.Y., Wang, H.L. (2011) "Polymer-assisted preparation of metal nanoparticles with controlled size and morphology," Journal of Materials Chemistry 21:8 pp. 2550-2554
  • Popov, A.A., Jeon, S., Senyavin, V.M., Dunsch, L., Maragani, S., Wang, M., Tan, L.S., Chiang, L.Y. (2011) "Unique ultralow 18 -trannulenyl HOMO-LUMO energy gap of photostable emerald-green D 3d-2-methylmalonato[60]fullerenes," Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 2:18 pp. 2296-2299
  • Chiang, L.Y., Padmawar, P.A., Rogers-Haley, J.E., So, G., Canteenwala, T., Thota, S., Tan, L.S., Pritzker, K., Huang, Y.Y., Sharma, S.K., Kurup, D.B., Hamblin, M.R., Wilson, B., Urbas, A. (2010) "Synthesis and characterization of highly photoresponsive fullerenyl dyads with a close chromophore antenna-C60 contact and effective photodynamic potential," Journal of Materials Chemistry 20:25 pp. 5280-5293
  • Kokubo, K., Arastoo, R.S., Oshima, T., Wang, C.C., Gao, Y., Wang, H.L., Geng, H., Chiang, L.Y. (2010) "Synthesis and regiochemistry of [60]fullerenyl 2-methylmalonate bisadducts and their facile electron-accepting properties," Journal of Organic Chemistry 75:13 pp. 4574-4583
  • Thota, S., Jeon, S., Wang, M., Chiang, L.Y. (2010) "Synthesis of cationic dumbbell-shaped fullerene nanostructures as potential photodynamic sensitizers," Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part A: Pure and Applied Chemistry 47:12 pp. 1184-1190
  • Chiang, L.Y., Anandakathir, R., Hauck, T.S., Lee, L., Canteenwala, T., Padmawar, P.A., Pritzker, K., Bruno, F.F., Samuelson, L.A. (2010) "Synthesis of covalently attached hexadecaanilines on carbon nanotubes: Toward electronic nanocarbon preparation," Nanoscale 2:4 pp. 535-541
  • Jeon, S.H., Xu, P., MacK, N.H., Chiang, L.Y., Brown, L., Wang, H.L. (2010) "Understanding and controlled growth of silver nanoparticles using oxidized N-methyl-pyrrolidone as a reducing agent," Journal of Physical Chemistry C 114:1 pp. 36-40
  • Wang, W.J., Chiu, H.S., Chang, C.S., Chiang, L.Y. (2009) "Electrochemistry of nitrated fullerene derivatives," Diamond and Related Materials 18:2-3 pp. 469-471
  • Kokubo, K., Thota, S., Wang, H.L., Chiang, L.Y. (2009) "Structural analysis of novel [60]fullerene bisadduct regioisomers by DFT calculation," Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part A: Pure and Applied Chemistry 46:12 pp. 1176-1181
  • Thota, S., Kokubo, K., Tan, L.S., Chiang, L.Y. (2009) "Synthesis of highly luminescent tris-fluorenyl chromophores as intermediates of potential nonlinear photonic materials," Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part A: Pure and Applied Chemistry 46:12 pp. 1165-1171
  • Elim, H.I., Jeon, S.H., Verma, S., Ji, W., Tan, L.S., Urbas, A., Chiang, L.Y. (2008) "Nonlinear optical transmission properties of C60 dyads consisting of a light-harvesting diphenylaminofluorene antenna," Journal of Physical Chemistry B 112:32 pp. 9561-9564
  • Vincent Lau, K.H., Anandakathir, R., Pritzker, K., Chiang, L.Y. (2008) "Solvent and concentration-dependent aggregation study of C60 dyads and multiads on nonlinear photonic properties," Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part A: Pure and Applied Chemistry 45:11 pp. 893-899
  • Jeon, S., So, G., Anandakathir, R., Canteenwala, T., Tan, L.S., Pritzker, K., Chiang, L.Y. (2008) "Synthesis and characterization of C60 dyads with highly photoactive dicyanoethylenylated diphenylaminofluorene chromophore antenna," Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part A: Pure and Applied Chemistry 45:11 pp. 918-925
  • Jeon, S.H., Anandakathir, R., Chiang, J., Chiang, L.Y. (2007) "Alternative synthesis of C60-diphenylaminofluorene derivatives for nonlinear photonic applications: Method of preparation and characterization," Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part A: Pure and Applied Chemistry 44:12 pp. 1275-1282
  • Elim, H.I., Anandakathir, R., Jakubiak, R., Chiang, L.Y., Ji, W., Tan, L.S. (2007) "Large concentration-dependent nonlinear optical responses of starburst diphenylaminofluorenocarbonyl methano[60]fullerene pentads," Journal of Materials Chemistry 17:18 pp. 1826-1838
  • El-Khouly, M.E., Anandakathir, R., Ito, O., Chiang, L.Y. (2007) "Prolonged charge-separated states of starburst tetra(diphenylaminofluoreno) [60]fullerene adducts upon photoexcitation," Journal of Physical Chemistry A 111:30 pp. 6938-6944
  • Anandakathir, R., Tan, L.S., Chiang, L.Y. (2007) "Starburst encapsulation of C60 by multiple hindered two-photon absorptive diphenylaminodialkylfluorene arms," Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part A: Pure and Applied Chemistry 44:12 pp. 1265-1273
  • So, G., Karotki, A., Verma, S., Pritzker, K., Wilson, B., Chiang, L.Y. (2006) "Comparison of singlet oxygen generation efficiency between water-soluble C 60-diphenylaminofluorene conjugates and molecular micelle-like FC 4S," Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part A: Pure and Applied Chemistry 43:12 pp. 1955-1963
  • Padmawar, P.A., Rogers, J.E., He, G.S., Chiang, L.Y., Tan, L.S., Canteenwala, T., Zheng, Q., Slagle, J.E., McLean, D.G., Fleitz, P.A., Prasad, P.N. (2006) "Large cross-section enhancement and intramolecular energy transfer upon multiphoton absorption of hindered diphenylaminofluorene-C 60 dyads and triads," Chemistry of Materials 18:17 pp. 4065-4074
  • Canteenwala, T., Li, W., Wang, H.L., Chiang, L.Y. (2006) "Low multielectron reduction potentials of emerald green [60]fullerenes," Chemistry Letters 35:7 pp. 762-763
  • Ei-Khouly, M.E., Padmawar, P., Araki, Y., Verma, S., Chiang, L.Y., Ito, O. (2006) "Photoinduced processes in a tricomponent molecule consisting of diphenylaminofluorene-dicyanoethylene-methano[60]fullerene," Journal of Physical Chemistry A 110:3 pp. 884-891
  • Anandakathir, R., Canteenwala, T., Wang, H.L., Chiang, L.Y. (2006) "Synthesis and characterization of hexadecaaniline-grafted comb-like poly(maleic acid-alt-1-octadecene)," Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part A: Pure and Applied Chemistry 43:12 pp. 1945-1954
  • Tang, Z., Padmawar, P.A., Canteenwala, T., Gao, Y., Watkins, E., Majewski, J., Chiang, L.Y., Wang, H.L. (2006) "Synthesis and characterization of monolayers and Langmuir - Blodgett Films of an amphiphilic oligo(ethylene glycol)-C6o-hexadecaaniline conjugate," Langmuir 22:12 pp. 5366-5373
  • Padmawar, P.A., Canteenwala, T., Verma, S., Tan, L.S., Chiang, L.Y. (2006) "Synthesis and characterization of photoresponsive diphenylaminofluorene chromophore adducts of [60]fullerene," Journal of Materials Chemistry 16:14 pp. 1366-1378
  • El-Khouly, M.E., Canteenwala, T., Araki, Y., Ito, O., Chiang, L.Y. (2006) "Unusual photophysical properties of emerald green [60]fullerene," Chemistry Letters 35:7 pp. 710-711
  • Yu, C., Canteenwala, T., El-Khouly, M.E., Araki, Y., Pritzker, K., Ito, O., Wilson, B.C., Chiang, L.Y. (2005) "Efficiency of singlet oxygen production from self-assembled nanospheres of molecular micelle-like photosensitizers FC4S," Journal of Materials Chemistry 15:18 pp. 1857-1864
  • Canteenwala, T., Padmawar, P.A., Chiang, L.Y. (2005) "Intense near-infrared optical absorbing emerald green [60]fullerenes," Journal of the American Chemical Society 127:1 pp. 26-27
  • Yu, C., Canteenwala, T., Chiang, L.Y., Wilson, B., Pritzker, K. (2005) "Photodynamic effect of hydrophilic C60-derived nanostructures for catalytic antitumoral antibacterial applications," Synthetic Metals 153:1-3 pp. 37-40
  • Canteenwala, T., Padmawar, P.A., Patil, S., Haldar, M., Chiang, L.Y. (2005) "Preparation of conducting core-shell nanoparticles based on dendritic hexadecaaniline-C60-poly(dimethylsiloxane) conjugates," Synthetic Metals 154:1-3 pp. 5-8
  • Verma, S., Hauck, T., El-Khouly, M.E., Padmawar, P.A., Canteenwala, T., Pritzker, K., Ito, O., Chiang, L.Y. (2005) "Self-assembled photoresponsive amphiphilic diphenylaminofluorene-C 60 conjugate vesicles in aqueous solution," Langmuir 21:8 pp. 3267-3272
  • Padmawar, P.A., Canteenwala, T., Verma, S., Tan, L.S., He, G.S., Prasad, P.N., Chiang, L.Y. (2005) "Synthesis of C60-diphenylaminofluorene dyads with two-photon absorbing characteristics," Synthetic Metals 154:1-3 pp. 185-188
  • Verma, S., Padmawar, P.A., Hauck, T., Canteenwala, T., Chiang, L.Y., Pritzker, K.P. (2005) "Synthesis of water-soluble highly two-photon responsive [60]fullerene-diphenylaminofluorene chromophore dyads," Journal of Macromolecular Science - Pure and Applied Chemistry 42 A:11 pp. 1497-1505
  • Lin, T.L., Jeng, U., Tsao, C.S., Liu, W.J., Canteenwala, T., Chiang, L.Y. (2004) "Effect of arm length on the aggregation structure of fullerene-based star ionomers," Journal of Physical Chemistry B 108:39 pp. 14884-14888
  • Zhai, R.S., Das, A., Hsu, C.K., Han, C.C., Canteenwala, T., Chiang, L.Y., Chuang, T.J. (2004) "Polymeric fullerene oxide films produced by decomposition of hexanitro[60]fullerene," Carbon 42:2 pp. 395-403
  • Konishi, T., Fujitsuka, M., Luo, H., Araki, Y., Ito, O., Chiang, L.Y. (2003) "Energy transfer from photoexcited state of water soluble hexa(sulfobutyl)fullerene (C60((CH2)4SO3Na)6)," Fullerenes Nanotubes and Carbon Nanostructures 11:3 pp. 237-243
  • Slanina, Z., Uhlk, F., Chiang, L.Y., Adamowicz, L. (2003) "Erratum: Structure of hexa-sulfobutyl fullerenes - A computational study (Fullerenes, Nanotubes, and Carbon Nanostructures (2002) 10:4 (363-372))," Fullerenes Nanotubes and Carbon Nanostructures 11:2 pp. 187
  • Luo, H., Fujitsuka, M., Araki, Y., Ito, O., Padmawar, P., Chiang, L.Y. (2003) "Inter- and intramolecular photoinduced electron-transfer processes between C60 and diphenylaminofluorene in solutions," Journal of Physical Chemistry B 107:35 pp. 9312-9318
  • Durstock, M.F., Spry, R.J., Baur, J.W., Taylor, B.E., Chiang, L.Y. (2003) "Investigation of electrostatic self-assembly as a means to fabricate and interfacially modify polymer-based photovoltaic devices," Journal of Applied Physics 94:5 pp. 3253-3259
  • Jeng, U., Lin, T.L., Shin, K., Hsu, C.H., Lee, H.Y., Wu, M.H., Chi, Z.A., Shih, M.C., Chiang, L.Y. (2003) "Lipophilic C60-derivative-induced structural changes in phospholipid layers," Physica B: Condensed Matter 336:1-2 pp. 204-210
  • Zhai, R.S., Das, A., Han, C.C., Canteenwala, T., Chiang, L.Y., Chuang, T.J. (2003) "Stable poly(fullerene oxide) thin films derived from hexanitro[60]fullerene," Journal of Materials Chemistry 13:2 pp. 167-169
  • Canteenwala, T., Patil, S., Halder, M., Chiang, L.Y. (2003) "Synthesis of elastic core-shell conductive submicron to nanoparticles of penta(oligoanilinated) C60," Synthetic Metals 135-136: pp. 795-797
  • Canteenwala, T., Patil, S.V., Haldar, M., Padmawar, P.A., Verma, S., Chiang, L.Y. (2003) "Synthesis of Starburst Oligoanilino[60]fullerene and Poly(Dimethylsiloxane) Triblock Copolymers," Journal of Macromolecular Science - Pure and Applied Chemistry 40 A:12 pp. 1263-1273
  • Shiea, J., Huang, J.P., Teng, C.F., Jeng, J., Wang, L.Y., Chiang, L.Y. (2003) "Use of a water-soluble fullerene derivative as precipitating reagent and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization matrix to selectively detect charged species in aqueous solutions," Analytical Chemistry 75:14 pp. 3587-3595
  • Shiea, J., Huang, J.P., Teng, C.F., Jeng, J., Wang, L.Y., Chiang, L.Y. (2003) "Use of a water-soluble fullerene derivative as precipitating reagent and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization matrix to selectively detect charged species in aqueous solutions.," Analytical Chemistry 75:14 pp. 3255-3263
  • Huang, S.S., Mashino, T., Mochizuki, M., Chiang, L.Y., Chih, L.H., Hsieh, H.M., Teng, C.M., Okuda, K., Hirota, T., Tsai, M.C. (2002) "Effect of hexasulfobutylated C60 on the isolated aortic ring of guinea pig," Pharmacology 64:2 pp. 91-97
  • Canteenwala, T., Anantharaj, V., Patil, S.V., Halder, M., Chiang, L.Y. (2002) "Intramolecular electron-transfer of C60-oligoaniline leucoemeraldine conjugates upon photoactivation," Journal of Macromolecular Science - Pure and Applied Chemistry 39 A:10 pp. 1069-1083
  • Jeng, U., Lin, T.L., Liu, W.J., Tsao, C.S., Canteenwala, T., Chiang, L.Y., Sung, L.P., Han, C.C. (2002) "SANS and SAXS study on aqueous mixtures of fullerene-based star ionomers and sodium dodecyl sulfate," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications 304:1-2 pp. 191-201
  • Jeng, U.S., Lin, T.L., Wang, L.Y., Chiang, L.Y., Ho, D.L., Han, C.C. (2002) "SANS structural characterization of fullerenol-derived star polymers in solutions," Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing 74:SUPPL.I pp. 0-0
  • Slanina, Z., Uhlk, F., Chiang, L.Y., Adamowicz, L. (2002) "Structure of hexa-sulfobutyl fullerenes: A computational study," Fullerenes Nanotubes and Carbon Nanostructures 10:4 pp. 363-372
  • Jeng, U., Lin, T.L., Hu, Y., Chang, T.S., Canteenwala, T., Chiang, L.Y., Frielinghaus, H. (2002) "Study on aqueous mixtures of fullerene-based star ionomers and sodium dodecyl sulfate using small angle scattering with contrast variation," Journal of Physical Chemistry A 106:51 pp. 12209-12213
  • Patwardhan, S.V., Mukherjee, N., Durstock, M.F., Chiang, L.Y., Clarson, S.J. (2002) "Synthesis of C60 fullerene-silica hybrid nano structures," Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers 12:1-2 pp. 49-55
  • Chiang, L.Y., Padmawar, P.A., Canteenwala, T., Tan, L.S., He, G.S., Kannan, R., Vaia, R., Lin, T.C., Zheng, Q., Prasad, P.N. (2002) "Synthesis of C60-diphenylaminofluorene dyad with large 2PA cross-sections and efficient intramolecular two-photon energy transfer," Chemical Communications 8:17 pp. 1854-1855
  • Slanina, Z., Iida, S., Zhao, X., Chiang, L.Y., Adamowicz, L., Osawa, E. (2001) "Computations of hexa-nitrated and hexa-anilinated fullerenes," Synthetic Metals 121:1-3 pp. 1101-1102
  • Huang, S.S., Chih, L.H., Lin, C.H., Chiang, L.Y., Mashino, T., Mochizuki, M., Okuda, K., Hirota, T., Tsai, M.C. (2001) "Effects of hexasulfobutylated C60 on the gastric circular muscle of guinea pig," Fullerene Science and Technology 9:3 pp. 375-395
  • Durstock, M.F., Taylor, B., Spry, R.J., Chiang, L.Y., Reulbach, S., Heitfeld, K., Baur, J.W. (2001) "Electrostatic self-assembly as a means to create organic photovoltaic devices," Synthetic Metals 116:1-3 pp. 373-377
  • Chien, C.T., Chen, C.F., Hsu, S.M., Chiang, L.Y., Lai, M.K. (2001) "Forced expression of BCL-2 and BCL-xL by novel water-soluble fullerene, C60(glucosamine)6, reduces renal ischemia/reperfusion-induced oxidative stress," Fullerene Science and Technology 9:1 pp. 77-88
  • Huang, S.S., Tsai, S.K., Chih, C.L., Chiang, L.Y., Hsieh, H.M., Teng, C.M., Tsai, M.C. (2001) "Neuroprotective effect of hexasulfobutylated C60 on rats subjected to focal cerebral ischemia," Free Radical Biology and Medicine 30:6 pp. 643-649
  • Anantharaj, V., Patil, S.V., Canteenwala, T., Wang, L.Y., Chiang, L.Y. (2001) "Oxidation of C60-bound oligoaniline leucoemeraldine upon photoactivation," Synthetic Metals 121:1-3 pp. 1123-1124
  • Baur, J.W., Durstock, M.F., Taylor, B.E., Spry, R.J., Reulbach, S., Chiang, L.Y. (2001) "Photovoltaic interface modification via electrostatic self-assembly," Synthetic Metals 121:1-3 pp. 1547-1548
  • Mohan, H., Palit, D.K., Chiang, L.Y., Mittal, J.P. (2001) "Radiation chemical and photophysical properties of C60(C4H8SO3Na)n in aqueous solution: A laser flash photolysis and pulse radiolysis study," Fullerene Science and Technology 9:1 pp. 37-53
  • Chen, B.H., Canteenwala, T., Patil, S., Chiang, L.Y. (2001) "Rapid sulfation kinetics of fullerene in oleum-oxide mixtures," Synthetic Communications 31:11 pp. 1659-1667
  • Chen, M.J., Chiang, L.Y., Lai, Y.L. (2001) "Reactive oxygen species and substance P in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension," Toxicology and applied pharmacology 171:3 pp. 165-173
  • Kuo, C., Kumar, J., Tripathy, S.K., Chiang, L.Y. (2001) "Synthesis and properties of [60]fullerene-polyvinylpyridine conjugates for photovoltaic devices," Journal of Macromolecular Science - Pure and Applied Chemistry 38 A:12 pp. 1481-1498
  • Liu, W.J., Jeng, U., Lin, T.L., Cateenwala, T., Chiang, L.Y. (2001) "Temperature-dependent aggregation structures of fullerene-based ionomers in electrolyte solutions," Fullerene Science and Technology 9:2 pp. 131-139
  • Ma, C.C., Sung, S.C., Wang, F.Y., Chiang, L.Y., Lee Wang, Y., Chiang, C.L. (2001) "Thermal, mechanical, and morphological properties of Novolac-type phenolic resin blended with fullerenol polyurethane and linear polyurethane," Journal of Polymer Science, Part B: Polymer Physics 39:20 pp. 2436-2443
  • Liu, W.J., Jeng, U., Lin, T.L., Lai, S.H., Shih, M.C., Tsao, C.S., Wang, L.Y., Chiang, L.Y., Sung, L.P. (2000) "Adsorption of dodecahydroxylated-fullerene monolayers at the air-water interface," Physica B: Condensed Matter 283:1-3 pp. 49-52
  • Huang, H.M., Ou, H.C., Hsieh, S.J., Chiang, L.Y. (2000) "Blockage of amyloid peptide-induced cytosolic free calcium by fullerenol-1, carboxylate C60 in PC12 cells," Life Sciences 66:16 pp. 1525-1533
  • Slanina, Z., Sugiki, T., Zhao, X., Lee, S.L., Chiang, L.Y., Osawa, E. (2000) "C60(NO2)2: quantum-chemical evaluations of structure, energetics, and vibrational spectra," Fullerene Science and Technology 8:4 pp. 351-367
  • Lai, H.S., Chen, Y., Chen, W.J., Chang, K.J., Chiang, L.Y. (2000) "Free radical scavenging activity of fullerenol on grafts after small bowel transplantation in dogs," Transplantation proceedings 32:6 pp. 1272-1274
  • Lai, H.S., Chen, W.J., Chiang, L.Y. (2000) "Free radical scavenging activity of fullerenol on the ischemia- reperfusion intestine in dogs," World journal of surgery 24:4 pp. 450-454
  • Baur, J.W., Durstock, M.F., Taylor, B., Spry, R.J., McKellar, R., Mobley, F., Dudis, D., Franks, M., Clarson, S.J., Chiang, L.Y. (2000) "Nanostructured organic photovoltaic devices via electrostatic self-assembly," American Chemical Society, Polymer Preprints, Division of Polymer Chemistry 41:1 pp. 831-832
  • Mattoussi, H., Rubner, M.F., Zhou, F., Kumar, J., Tripathy, S.K., Chiang, L.Y. (2000) "Photovoltaic heterostructure devices made of sequentially adsorbed poly(phenylene vinylene) and functionalized C60," Applied Physics Letters 77:10 pp. 1540-1542
  • Jin, H., Chen, W.Q., Tang, X.W., Chiang, L.Y., Yang, C.Y., Schloss, J.V., Wu, J.Y. (2000) "Polyhydroxylated C60, fullerenols, as glutamate receptor antagonists and neuroprotective agents," Journal of neuroscience research 62:4 pp. 600-607
  • Hsu, H.C., Chiang, L.Y., Chen, W.J., Lee, Y.T. (2000) "Water-soluble hexasulfobutyl [60] fullerene inhibits plasma lipid peroxidation by direct association with lipoproteins," Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology 36:4 pp. 423-427
  • Lee, Y.T., Chiang, L.Y., Chen, W.J., Hsu, H.C. (2000) "Water-soluble hexasulfobutyl[60]fullerene inhibit low-density lipoprotein oxidation in aqueous and lipophilic phases," Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 224:2 pp. 69-75
  • Slanina, Z., Zhao, X., Chiang, L.Y., Osawa, E. (1999) "Biologically active fullerene derivatives: computations of structures, energetics, and vibrations of C60(OH)x and C60(NO2)y," International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 74:3 pp. 343-349
  • Chueh, S.C., Lai, M.K., Lee, M.S., Chiang, L.Y., Ho, T.I., Chen, S.C. (1999) "Decrease of free radical level in organ perfusate by a novel water-soluble carbon-sixty, hexa(sulfobutyl)fullerenes," Transplantation proceedings 31:5 pp. 1976-1977
  • Huang, S.S., Chen, Y.H., Chiang, L.Y., Tsai, M.C. (1999) "Effects of hexasulfobutylated C60 on the thalamic neurons in neonatal rat in vitro," Fullerene Science and Technology 7:4 pp. 551-571
  • Jeng, U.S., Liu, W.J., Lin, T.L., Wang, L.Y., Chiang, L.Y. (1999) "Fractal structure of polyhydroxylated fullerenes in water solutions," Fullerene Science and Technology 7:4 pp. 599-608
  • Wang, L.Y., Anantharaj, V., Ashok, K., Chiang, L.Y. (1999) "Fullerene-derived star-burst conjugated polymers," Synthetic Metals 103:1-3 pp. 2350-2353
  • Ueng, T.H., Wang, H.W., Chiang, L.Y. (1999) "Inhibition of drug-metabolizing enzymes in mouse liver by a water soluble fullerene C60," Fullerene Science and Technology 7:4 pp. 681-694
  • Chien, C.T., Chen, C.F., Chiang, L.Y., Lai, M.K. (1999) "Novel water-soluble hexa(sulfobutyl)fullerene attenuates apoptosis formation after ischemic renal failure," Fullerene Science and Technology 7:4 pp. 529-540
  • Anantharaj, V., Ho, E., Wang, L.Y., Chiang, L.Y. (1999) "Optical properties of C60-derived star-burst oligoanilines," Synthetic Metals 101:1 pp. 791-792
  • Anantharaj, V., Wang, L.Y., Chiang, L.Y. (1999) "Phenylamine analogous adducts of C60," Fullerene Science and Technology 7:4 pp. 493-504
  • Huang, J.P., Wang, L.Y., Chiang, L.Y., Shiea, J. (1999) "Polyfunctional fullerene derivatives as UV-MALDI matrices to detect peptides and proteins," Fullerene Science and Technology 7:4 pp. 541-550
  • Lai, Y.L., Chiou, W.Y., Lu, F.J., Chiang, L.Y. (1999) "Roles of oxygen radicals and elastase in citric acid-induced airway constriction of guinea-pigs," British journal of pharmacology 126:3 pp. 778-784
  • Jeng, U.S., Lin, T.L., Tsao, C.S., Lee, C.H., Wang, L.Y., Chiang, L.Y., Sung, L.P., Han, C.C. (1999) "SANS study on a fullerenol-based poly(urethane-ether) elastomer," Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 60:8 pp. 1347-1349
  • Jeng, U.S., Lin, T.L., Tsao, C.S., Lee, C.H., Canteenwala, T., Wang, L.Y., Chiang, L.Y., Han, C.C. (1999) "Study of aggregates of fullerene-based ionomers in aqueous solutions using small angle neutron and X-ray scattering," Journal of Physical Chemistry B 103:7 pp. 1059-1063
  • Anantharaj, V., Bhonsle, J., Cantecnwala, T., Chiang, L.Y. (1999) "Synthesis and characterization of nitrated [60]fullerene derivatives," Journal of the Chemical Society - Perkin Transactions 1 1 pp. 31-36
  • Anantharaj, V., Wang, L.Y., Canteenwala, T., Chiang, L.Y. (1999) "Synthesis of starburst hexa(oligoanilinated) C60 using hexanitro[60]fullerene as a precursor," Journal of the Chemical Society - Perkin Transactions 1 22 pp. 3357-3366
  • Wang, L.Y., Anantharaj, V., Chu, C.C., Chiang, L.Y. (1999) "Thermal stability of fullerene-linked oligoaniline star macromolecules," Synthetic Metals 101:1 pp. 850-851
  • Chen, H.H., Huang, Y.T., Pang, V.F., Liang, S.C., Chiang, L.Y. (1999) "Water-soluble C60 and macrophages: morphologic features of FC4S-treated peritoneal macrophages in vitro and in vivo - a preliminary report," Fullerene Science and Technology 7:4 pp. 505-517
  • Huang, Y.S., Cheng, Y.N., Li, J.D., Lu, W.L., Wang, H.C., Chao, C.H., Chang, S.L., Wang, L.Y., Chiang, L.Y. (1999) "X-ray diffraction studies of the recrystallization of C60-based polymers," Fullerene Science and Technology 7:4 pp. 573-585
  • Chen, H.H., Yu, C., Ueng, T.H., Chen, S., Chen, B.J., Huang, K.J., Chiang, L.Y. (1998) "Acute and subacute toxicity study of water-soluble polyalkylsulfonated C60 in rats," Toxicologic pathology 26:1 pp. 143-151
  • Kamat, J.P., Devasagayam, T.P., Mohan, H., Chiang, L.Y., Mittal, J.P. (1998) "Effect of C60(OH)18 on membranes of rat liver microsomes during photosensitization," Fullerene Science and Technology 6:4 pp. 663-679
  • Mohan, H., Palit, D.K., Mittal, J.P., Chiang, L.Y., Asmus, K.D., Guldi, D.M. (1998) "Excited states and electron transfer reactions of C60(OH)18 in aqueous solution," Journal of the Chemical Society - Faraday Transactions 94:3 pp. 359-363
  • Chen, B.H., Huang, J.P., Wang, L.Y., Shiea, J., Chen, T.L., Chiang, L.Y. (1998) "Facile sulfation of C60 using P2O5 as an oxidation promoter," Journal of the Chemical Society - Perkin Transactions 1 7 pp. 1171-1173
  • Chi, Y., Bhonsle, J.B., Canteenwala, T., Huang, J.P., Shiea, J., Chen, B.J., Chiang, L.Y. (1998) "Novel water-soluble hexa(sulfobutyl)fullerenes as potent free radical scavengers," Chemistry Letters 5 pp. 465-466
  • Chen, B.H., Huang, J.P., Wang, L.Y., Shiea, J., Chen, T.L., Chiang, L.Y. (1998) "Synthesis of octadecahydroxylated C70," Synthetic Communications 28:19 pp. 3515-3525
  • Lu, L.H., Lee, Y.T., Chen, H.W., Chiang, L.Y., Huang, H.C. (1998) "The possible mechanisms of the antiproliferative effect of fullerenol, polyhydroxylated C60, on vascular smooth muscle cells," British journal of pharmacology 123:6 pp. 1097-1102
  • Tseng, S.M., Wang, L.Y., Hsieh, K.H., Liau, W.B., Chiang, L.Y. (1997) "Arm length effect on synthetic chemistry of fullerene- connected urethane-ether star-polymers," Fullerene Science and Technology 5:7 pp. 1313-1324
  • Tseng, S.M., Wang, L.Y., Hsieh, K.H., Liau, W.B., Chiang, L.Y. (1997) "Arm length effect on synthetic chemistry of fullerene-connected urethane-ether star-polymers," Fullerene Science and Technology 5:5 pp. 1021-1032
  • Lai, Y.L., Chiou, W.Y., Chiang, L.Y. (1997) "Fullerene derivatives attenuate bronchoconstriction induced by xanthine-xanthine oxidase," Fullerene Science and Technology 5:7 pp. 1337-1345
  • Lai, Y.L., Chiou, W.Y., Chiang, L.Y. (1997) "Fullerene derivatives attenuate bronchoconstriction induced by xanthine-xanthine oxidase," Fullerene Science and Technology 5:5 pp. 1057-1065
  • Chueh, S.C., Lai, M.K., Chen, S.C., Chiang, L.Y., Chen, W.C. (1997) "Fullerenols in canine renal preservation - A preliminary report," Transplantation proceedings 29:1-2 pp. 1313-1315
  • Wang, L.Y., Kuo, C.S., Chiang, L.Y. (1997) "Microscopic surface characterization of polyaniline-based conducting elastomers," Synthetic Metals 84:1-3 pp. 587-588
  • Tsai, M.C., Chen, Y.H., Chiang, L.Y. (1997) "Polyhydroxylated C60, fullerenol, a novel free-radical trapper, prevented hydrogen peroxide- and cumene hydroperoxide-elicited changes in rat hippocampus in-vitro," Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 49:4 pp. 438-445
  • Ma, C.M., Meng, S., Chiang, L.Y., Wang, L.Y., Chu, P.P., Wu, H. (1997) "Preparation and characterization of fullerene-derived polymer blended with Novolac type phenolic resin," Fullerene Science and Technology 5:5 pp. 935-955
  • Mohan, H., Chiang, L.Y., Mittal, J.P. (1997) "Radiation chemical investigations on aqueous solutions of C60(OH)18," Research on Chemical Intermediates 23:5 pp. 403-414
  • Chen, H.H., Yu, C., Ueng, T.H., Liang, C.T., Chen, B.J., Hong, C.C., Chiang, L.Y. (1997) "Renal effects of water-soluble polyarylsulfonated C60 in rats with an acute toxicity study," Fullerene Science and Technology 5:7 pp. 1387-1396
  • Ueng, T.H., Kang, J.J., Wang, H.W., Cheng, Y.W., Chiang, L.Y. (1997) "Suppression of microsomal cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation by fullerenol, a polyhydroxylated fullerene C60," Toxicology letters 93:1 pp. 29-37
  • Tien, M.J., Wang, Y., Ho, T.I., Chiang, L.Y. (1997) "Synthesis and magnetic properties of stable nitroxyl tri-radicals," Synthetic Metals 85:1-3 pp. 1675-1676
  • Chiang, L.Y., Wang, L.Y., Kuo, C.S., Lin, J.G., Huang, C.Y. (1997) "Synthesis of fullerenol-derived elastomers and conductive elastomers," Macromolecular Symposia 118: pp. 479-484
  • Chiang, L.Y., Wang, L.Y., Kuo, C.S., Lin, J.G., Huang, C.Y. (1997) "Synthesis of novel conducting elastomers as polyaniline-interpenetrated networks of fullerenol-polyurethanes," Synthetic Metals 84:1-3 pp. 721-724
  • Yu, C., Bhonsle, J.B., Wang, L.Y., Lin, J.G., Chen, B.J., Chiang, L.Y. (1997) "Synthetic aspects and free-radical scavenging efficiency of polyhydroxylated C60," Fullerene Science and Technology 5:7 pp. 1407-1421
  • Lin, D.C., Wang, L.Y., Chiang, L.Y. (1997) "Thermally stimulated depolarization and polarization current study of C60-PU based conducting interpenetrated polymer networks (IPNs)," Synthetic Metals 84:1-3 pp. 987-988
  • Lai, Y.L., Chiang, L.Y. (1997) "Water/soluble fullerene derivatives attenuate exsanguination-induced bronchoconstriction of guinea-pigs," Journal of Autonomic Pharmacology 17:4 pp. 229-235
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  • Wang, L.Y., Wu, J.S., Tseng, S.M., Kuo, C.S., Hsieh, K.H., Liau, W.B., Chiang, L.Y. (1996) "Synthesis of polyurethane elastomers hypercross-linked by partially hydrated polyhydroxylated C60," Journal of Polymer Research 3:1 pp. 1-10
  • Chiang, L.Y., Wang, L.Y., Upasani, R.B. (1995) "Efficient synthesis of highly hindered dicyanoethylenephenol radical," Synthetic Metals 71:1-3 pp. 1801-1802
  • Chiang, L.Y., Lu, F.J., Lin, J.T. (1995) "Free radical scavenging activity of water-soluble fullerenols," Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications 12 pp. 1283-1284
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  • Chiang, L.Y., Wang, L.Y., Tseng, S.M., Wu, J.S., Hsieh, K.H. (1995) "Utilization of polyhydroxylated C60 as a molecular core for the synthesis of star-shaped polymers," Synthetic Metals 70:1-3 pp. 1477-1480
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  • Chiang, L.Y., Upasani, R.B., Sheu, H.S., Goshorn, D.P., Lee, C.H. (1992) "Low-temperature ferromagnetic intermolecular interactions between galvinoxyl radicals in submicrocrystalline solids," Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications 13 pp. 959-961
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  • Chiang, L.Y., Swirczewski, J.W., Ramanarayanan, T.A., Mumford, J.D. (1992) "Novel quaternary salts of quinoline oligomer as metal surface protective materials against acid corrosion," Chemistry of Materials 4:2 pp. 245-247
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  • Chiang, L.Y., Swirczewski, J.W., Lai, F., Goshorn, D.P. (1991) "New chemistry to the synthesis of quinoline oligomers and a CVD technique for high temperature conducting thin films," Synthetic Metals 42:1-2 pp. 1425-1431
  • Chiang, L.Y., Swirczewski, J.W., Passaretti, J.D., Chianelli, R.R. (1989) "Novel dehydrogenative condensation reactivity of rhenium sulfide with organic heterocyclic molecules," Solid State Ionics 32-33:PART 2 pp. 988-992
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  • Hsu, S.Y., Chiang, L.Y. (1988) "Synthesis of bis(oxydimethylene)tetrathiafulvalene (BODM-TTF) and BEDSe-TTF," Synthetic Metals 27:3-4 pp. 651-656
  • Chiang, L.Y., Johnston, D.C., Goshorn, D.P., Bloch, A.N. (1988) "Synthesis of organic solids with a high spin density as an approach to organic ferromagnets," Synthetic Metals 27:3-4 pp. 639-644
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  • Chiang, L.Y. (1987) "Facile Synthesis of 4-Alkylphenyl 4-(4-nitrobenzoyloxy)benzoate (DBXNO2) and Its Cyano Analog (DBXCN)," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 146: pp. 137
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  • Chiang, L.Y., Johnston, D.C., Stokes, J.P., Bloch, A.N. (1987) "Synthesis and study of multiple cationic salts of hexamethoxytriphenylene (HMTP)," Synthetic Metals 19:1-3 pp. 697-702
  • Safinya, R., Chiang, L.Y. (1987) "The Nematic and Smectic-A1 Phases in DB7NO2: High Resolution X-ray Study and Synthesis," Incommesurate Crystals, Liquid Crystals, and Quasi-crystals, pp. 271-281
  • Kwak, J.F., Schirber, J.E., chaikin, P.M., Williams, J.M., Wang, H.H., Chiang, L.Y. (1986) "(TMTSF)2PF6: Evidence for a Unified Phase Diagram," Physica (Amsterdam) 143B: pp. 397
  • Chiang, L.Y., Chianelli, R.R. (1986) "Catalytic Dehydrogenative Polymerization of Tetrahydroquinoline. A Novel Synthesis of Polyquinoline," Proc. Polym. Mat. Sci. & Eng. 55:473
  • Chaikin, P.M., Brooks, J.S., Chamberlin, R.V., Chiang, L.Y., Goshorn, D.P., Johnston, D.C., Naughton, M.J., Yan, X. (1986) "Magnetic Field Induced Phases of (TMTSF)2ClO4," Physica 143B: pp. 383
  • Brooks, J.S., Naighton, M.J., Chamberlin, R.V., Chiang, L.Y., Chaikin, P.M. (1986) "Magnetization Studies of the Field-Induced Transitions in (TMTSF)2ClO4," J. Mag. & Mag. Mat. 57:637
  • Chiang, L.Y., Chianelli, R.R. (1986) "Novel catalytic dehydrogenative polymerization for polyquinoline synthesis," Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications 19 pp. 1461-1462
  • Chaikin, P.M., Mele, E.J., Chiang, L.Y., Chamberlin, R.V., Naughton, M.J., Brooks, J.S. (1986) "On the Kwak Transition: Field-Induced States in Two-dimensional Organic Conductors," Synthetic Metals 13: pp. 45
  • Kwak, J.F., Schirber, J.E., Chaikin, P.M., Williams, J.M., Wang, H.H., Chiang, L.Y. (1986) "Spin-Density-Wave Transitions in a Magnetic Field," Phys. Rev. Letters 56: pp. 972
  • Safinya, C.R., Varady, W.A., Chiang, L.Y., Dimon, P. (1986) "X-ray Study of the Nematic Phase and Smectic-A1 to Smectic-A Antiphase Transition in DB7NO2," Phys. Rev. Letters 57: pp. 432
  • Chiang, L.Y., Stokes, J., Safinya, C., Bloch, A.N. (1985) "Charge Transfer Salts of Highly Oriented Fibers of Discotic Liquid Crystal HET-n, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.," 125: pp. 279
  • Javadi, H.H., Sridhar, S., Gruner, G., Chiang, L.Y., Wudl, F. (1985) "Giant Conductivity Resonance in the Spin-Density-Wave State of an Organic Conductor," Phys. Rev. Letters 55: pp. 1216
  • Chiang, L.Y., Safinya, C.R., Clark, N.A., Liang, K.S., Bloch, A.N. (1985) "Highly oriented fibres of discotic liquid crystals," Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications 11 pp. 695-696
  • Naughton, M.J., Brooks, J.S., Chiang, L.Y., Chamberlin, R.V., Chaikin, P.M. (1985) "Magnetization Study of the Field-Induced Transitions in Tetramethyltetraselenafulvalenium Perchlorate, (TMTSF)2ClO4," Phys. Rev. Letters 55: pp. 969
  • Safinya, C.R., Clark, N.A., Liang, K.S., Varady, W.A., Chiang, L.Y. (1985) "Synchrotron X-ray Scattering Study of Freely Suspended Discotic Strands, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.," 123: pp. 205
  • Cowan, D., Mays, M., Lee, M., McCullough, R., Bailey, A., Lerstrup, K., Wiygul, F., Kistenmacher, T., Poehler, T., Chiang, L.Y. (1985) "Tellurium Containing Organic Metals, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.," 125: pp. 191
  • Huang, C.C., Lien, S.C., Dumrongrattana, D., Chiang, L.Y. (1984) "Calorimetric Studies Near the Smectic-A1-Smectic-A' Phase Transition of a Liquid Crystal Compound," 30: pp. 965
  • Chiang, L.Y., Shu, P., Holt, D., Cowan, D. (1983) "Chemistry en route to 2,2 -bithieno[3,4-d]-1,3-dithiole (DTTTF) and its selenium analogue," Journal of Organic Chemistry 48:24 pp. 4713-4717
  • Cowan, D.O., Kini, A., Chiang, L.Y., Lerstrup, K., Poehler, T.O., Bloch, A.N. (1982) "The Design, Synthesis and Characterization of the Molecular Components of Organic Conductors, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,"
  • Kistenmacher, T.J., Emge, T.J., Wiygul, F.M., Bryden, W.A., Chappell, J.S., Stokes, J.P., Chiang, L.Y., Cowan, D.O., Bloch, A.N. (1981) "DBTTF-TCNQ: A Mixed-Valent Organic Charge Transfer Complex with a Mixed Stack Crystalline Motif," Solid State Commun. 39: pp. 415
  • Chiang, L.Y., Meinwald, J. (1981) "eri-Bridged Naphthalenes, 5. Improved Synthesis of 1-Thiaphenalene," J. Org. Chem 46: pp. 4060
  • Gubser, D.U., Fuller, W.W., Poehler, T.O., Cowan, D.O., Lee, M., Potember, R.S., Chiang, L.Y. (1981) "Resistance Determination of Critical Magnetic Fields of Superconducting (TMTSF)2ClO4," Physica B&C 108: pp. 1185
  • Shu, P., Chiang, L.Y., Emge, T., Holt, D., Kistenmacher, T., Poehler, T., Bloch, A., Stokes, J., Lee, M., Cowan, D. (1981) "Synthesis of 2,2'-Bithieno[3,4-d]-1,3-dithiole (DTTTF) and Some of Its Charge Transfer Salts," J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. pp. 920
  • Chiang, L.Y., Cowan, D.O., Poehler, T.O., Bloch, A.N. (1981) "SYNTHESIS OF SUBSTITUTED TETRASELENAFULVALENES FROM DIMETHYLPHOSGENE IMINIUM CHLORIDE.," Molecular crystals and liquid crystals 86:1-4 pp. 27-34
  • Chiang, L.Y., Poehler, T.O., Bloch, A.N., Cowan, D.O. (1980) "A modified synthesis of tetraselenafulvalenes," Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications 18 pp. 866-867
  • Chiang, L.Y., Meinwald, J. (1980) "Peri-Bridged Naphthalenes, 4. Chalcogen-Bridged Acenaphthylenes," Tetrahedron Letters 21: pp. 4565
  • Chiang, L.Y., Chiang, J.F., Lu, K. (1980) "The Molecular Structure of Monosubstituted Chlorocyclohexene by Gas Phase Electron Diffraction," J. Molecular Structure 64 pp. 229
  • Chiang, L.Y., Chiang, J.F., Lu, K., Sung, E., Harmony, M. (1977) "The Molecular Structure of Norbornene as Determined by Electron Diffraction and Microwave Spectroscopy," J. Molecular Structure 41: pp. 67
  • Chiang, L.Y., Chiang, J.F., Kratus, M. (1975) "The Average Structure of 2,3-Diazabicyclo[2,2,1]hept-2-ene and 2,3-Diazabicyclo[2,2,2]oct-2-ene," Molecular Structure 26: pp. 175

Presentations

  • Design, Synthesis, and Electrochemical Characteristics of Highly Near-Infrared Absorbing Emerald Green 60Fullerene Acceptors, International Conference on Science and Technology of Synthetic Metals (ICSM 2006), Dublin, Irland, July 3Ð7, 2006. - International Conference on Science and Technology of Synthetic Metals (ICSM,
  • Ultrafast Two-Photon Absorption Based Energy-Transfer of Fullerosome Vesicle Nanostructures for Nonlinear Photonic Applications - The 221st ECS Meeting, May 2012 - Seattle, Washington
  • Ultrafast Photoresponsive Fullerenyl Nanostructures for Broadband Nonlinear Photonic Material Applications - AFRL NLO workshop, April 2011 - Dayton, Ohio
  • Design and Synthesis of Ultrafast Photoresponsive, Multiphoton Absorptive Hybrid Fullerene-Fluorene Chromophores for Broadband Nonlinear Photonic Applications - AFOSR Organic Chemistry Program Review Meeting, September 2010 - National Harbor, Virginia
  • Synthesis and Photoinduced Characteristics of Emerald Green Fullerene and C60-(antenna) Nanostructures as Molecular Basis of Metamaterials, Metamaterial Workshop - CeRM ACS Regional Meeting, June 2010 - Dayton, Ohio
  • Design and Synthesis of Large Area Coating or Inkjet Printing Processable Fullerenyl Nanostructures as the Base of Molecular Optical Metamaterials - Triservice MetaMaterial Review Meeting, May 2010 - Virginia Beach
  • Design and Synthesis of Highly Photoresponsive Starburst Fullerenyl Nanostructures for Nanolinear Photonic Applications - Department of Chemistry Seminar, December 2009 - University of Massachusetts Dartmouth
  • Ultrafast Photoinduced Charge Generation Responses Toward the Design of Molecular Optical Metamaterials - Air Force Research Laboratory Review Meeting, October 2009 - Dayton, Ohio
  • Design of Nonlinear Biophotonic C60-based Nanostructures as Photodynamic Therapeutic Agents - Electrochemical Society Meeting, May 2009 - San Francisco, California
  • Design and Synthesis of Highly Photoresponsive Starburst Fullerenyl Nanostructures - Air Force Research Laboratory, April 2009 - Dayton, Ohio
  • Ultrafast Intramolecular Nonlinear and Linear Photoresponses of Starburst C60-Antenna Nanostructures - AFOSR Review Meeting, May 2008 - College Park, Maryland
  • Potential Utilization of Ultrafast Charge Generation of C60(>DPAF-Cn)x Nanomaterials for Photovoltaics Application - Sin-Ao Energy Group, March 2008 - Beijing, China
  • Synthesis and Characterization of C60 Dyads with Highly Photoactive Dicyanoethylenylated Diphenylaminofluorene Chromophore Antenna - Tripathy Memorial Symposium, November 2007 - Lowell, Massachusetts
  • Starburst Fullerenyl Chromophores Exhibiting Highly Efficient Nonlinear Optical Responses - Air Force Research Laboratory, June 2007 - Dayton, Ohio
  • Design of Starburst Brushes on Photoresponsive Nanostructures Using C60 Cage as a Molecular Core or Dendritic Anchor - R&D and Materials Science, Dow Chemicals, May 2007 - Freeport, Texas
  • Synthesis and Electrochemical Characteristics of Highly Near-Infrared Absorbing Emerald Green 60Fullerenes - Symposium of Molecular and Supramolecular Chemistry of Fullerenes and Carbon Nanotube, May 2007 - Chicago, Illinois
  • Synthesis and Characterization of Single-point Substituted Fullerene Bisadduct: C60CMe(CO2Et)22 - Division of Colloid & Surface Chemistry, The 233rd ACS National Meeting, March 2007 - Chicago, Illinois
  • Synthesis and Characterization of Starburst Diphenylaminofluorene-Derived Fullerene Tetraadducts - Tripathy Memorial Symposium, December 2006 - Lowell, Massachusetts
  • Sterically Hindered Diphenylaminofluorene-C60 Dyads and Triads: Synthesis, Multiphoton Absorption and Energy-Transfer Studies - International Conference on Science and Technology of Synthetic Metals (ICSM 2006), July 2006 - Dublin, Ireland
  • Design, Synthesis, and Electrochemical Characteristics of Highly Near-Infrared Absorbing Emerald Green 60Fullerene Acceptors - International Conference on Science and Technology of Synthetic Metals (ICSM), July 2006 - Dublin, Irland

Intellectual Property

  • Patent - "Synthesis of Sulfated Fullerenes,"
  • Patent - "E-isomeric Fullerene Derivatives," 09/521,025 United States
  • Patent - "Multioligoanilinated Fullerenes," 6,452,037 United States
  • Patent - "Fullerene Derivatives as Free-Radical Scavengers, R.O.C," 0495-2403-E
  • Patent - "Polyorganofullerenes," 6,046,361 Patent Cooperation Treaty
  • Patent - "Fullerene-containing Metallocene," 6,002,035 United States
  • Patent - "Therapeutic Use of Water-soluble Fullerene Derivatives," 5,994,410 United States
  • Patent - "Fullerene Derivatives as Free-Radical Scavengers," 5,648,523 United States
  • Patent - "Fullerene Polymers," 5,635,581 United States
  • Patent - "Polysubstituted Fullerenes and their Preparation (C-2608)," 5,416,188 United States
  • Patent - "Formation of Polysubstituted Fullerenes," 5,177,248 United States
  • Patent - "Corrosion Inhibitor Composition,"
  • Patent - "Highly Conducting Organic Polymer Thin Film Coatings," 5,151,478 United States
  • Patent - "Oligoquinolinium Metal Oxide Salts as Sulfur Corrosion Inhibitors," 5,158,693 United States
  • Patent - "Polysubstituted Fullerenes and their Preparation,"
  • Patent - "Quaternary Oligoquinolinium Metal Oxide Salts as Sulfur Corrosion Inhibitors,"
  • Patent - "Quaternary Salts of Polymers Having Repeating Quinoxaline Moieties," 5,175,221 United States
  • Patent - "Synthesis of Quinoline and Substituted Quinoline Copolymers," United States
  • Patent - "Synthesis of Sulfated Fullerenes,"
  • Patent - Chiang, L.Y., Swirczewski, J.W."Synthesis of Quinoline and Substituted Quinoline Copolymers," Patent 5,162,495 United States
  • Patent - "Method for Polymering Aromatic Heterocyclic Compounds," United States
  • Patent - "New Polyquinoxaline Compositions and the Method of Preparation," 5,149,773 United States
  • Patent - "Polyquinoxaline Compositions and their Method of Preparation,"
  • Patent - Chiang, L.Y., Swirczewski, J.W., Chianelli, R.R."Method for Polymering Aromatic Heterocyclic Compounds," Patent 4,981,949 United States
  • Patent - "Organic Nitrogen-containing Metal Sulfide Compositions Their Preparation and Use," 4,971,938 United States
  • Patent - "Quinoline and Substituted Quinoline Copolymers,"
  • Patent - Chiang, L.Y., Swirczewski, J.W., Chianelli, R.R."Organic Nitrogen-containing Metal Sulfide Compositions, Their Preparation and Use," Patent 4,971,938 United States
  • Patent - "Polyquinolines by the Catalytic Dehydrogenative Polymerization of Tetrahydroquinoline," 590120
  • Patent - "Quaternary Quinolinium Compounds," 89301068
  • Patent - "Quaternary Salts of Quinoline Oligomer as Metal Surface Protective Materials," 4,880,907 United States
  • Patent - "Strongly Magnetic Organic Solid State Composition of Matter," 4,803,006 United States
  • Patent - "Synthesis of Novel Highly Intrinsic Conducting Organic Polymers," 4,833,232 United States
  • Patent - Chiang, L.Y."Quaternary Salts of Quinoline Oligomer as Metal Surface Protective Materials," Patent 4,880,907 United States
  • Patent - Chiang, L.Y."Synthesis of Novel Highly Intrinsic Conducting Organic Polymers," Patent 4,833,232 United States
  • Patent - Chiang, L.Y., Bloch, A.N."Strongly Magnetic Organic Solid State Composition of Matter," Patent 4,803,006 United States
  • Patent - "Synthesis of Polyquinoline by the Catalytic Dehydrogenative Polymerization of Tetrahydroquinoline," United States

Contracts, Fellowships, Grants and Sponsored Research

  • Design and Fabrication of Ultrafast Charge-Generating Photonic Fullerosome Nanove (2009), Grant -
    Chiang, L.Y. (Principal)
  • Ultrafast Photoresponsive Starburst and Dendritic Fullerenyl Nanostructures for B (2009), Grant -
    Chiang, L.Y. (Principal)
  • Measurement of Microwave-Frequency Responsive Fullerenyl Dielectric Metamaterials (2013), - AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY
    Chiang, L.Y. (Co-Principal)
  • New Stereoregular Functionalized Fullerenes as Nanomedicines for PDT (2009), Grant -
    Chiang, L.Y. (Principal)
  • Measurement of Microwave-Frequency Responsive Fullerenyl Dielectric Metamaterials (2011), - AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY
    Chiang, L.Y. (Co-Principal)
  • AFX-C60 Molecular Systems for NLO Applications (2009), - AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY
    Chiang, L.Y. (Principal)
  • Synthesis of Two-photon Absorption Chromophore as Bis (C60-DFAF-Cn) Nanostructure (2008), Grant -
    Chiang, L.Y. (Principal)